Netscape dating

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kinkdownloader - download kink.com shoots and metadata for your media server.

2020.08.18 15:12 MeanMrMustardGas kinkdownloader - download kink.com shoots and metadata for your media server.

I tried to share this a couple days ago, but apparently my account got caught in Reddit's spam filter. It appears to be fixed now [?], so if you saw it then, I apologize for reposting.

Introduction

A couple years ago, I posted a shell script for mass downloading videos from kink.com, and a few users found it useful. Recently, I decided to replace it with a "better" version written in Python, so I figured I would share it as well. Hopefully it helps some fellow lovers of the pornographic arts fill their collections.

What it does

This script downloads either single shoots, or full galleries of shoots from kink.com. In addition, it also creates an Emby compatible "nfo" file containing the shoot date, title, shoot description, actors, and "genre" tags. This allows you to import the titles into your media server and filter based on genre/actoetc... These files should work out-of-the-box with Emby [tested] or Kodi [untested], and can be used with Plex via 3rd-party metadata agents. They likely also work just fine with Jellyfin [untested[ due to similarities with Emby.
Tags are not saved to the video files themselves, as I personally prefer to archive them in their original state. As a result, videos are also saved using their original filenames.

Requirements

Usage

usage: kinkdownloader.py [-h] [--quality QUALITY] [--cookies COOKIES] url Download shoot videos from kink.com positional arguments: url Shoot or channel gallery URL. optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit --quality QUALITY Select video quality. One of: full, hd, large, medium, mobile --cookies COOKIES Location of Netscape cookies.txt file 
If URL is a gallery link, the script will iterate through each shoot in the gallery and download the videos and metadata. This is useful when attempting to download all of a channels content, as it is pretty easy to iterate through each gallery page via the command line. For example in POSIX shell:
for i in $(seq 1 48); do kinkdownloader.py https://www.kink.com/channel/devicebondage/latest/page/${i} done 
will download all shoots from the "Device Bondage" channel.

Code - kinkdownloader.py

#!/usbin/python3 ############################################################################## # kinkdownloader.py - Downloads Kink.com videos and creates metadata for emby. ############################################################################## import argparse import os import datetime import requests import sys from xml.sax.saxutils import escape from pathlib import Path from bs4 import BeautifulSoup from http.cookiejar import MozillaCookieJar from tqdm import tqdm # Set up command line arguments parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description=''' Download shoot videos from kink.com''') parser.add_argument("url", help="Shoot or channel gallery URL.") parser.add_argument("--quality", help='''Select video quality. One of: full, hd, large, medium, mobile''') parser.add_argument("--cookies", help="Location of Netscape cookies.txt file") args = parser.parse_args() # Grab cookies from netscape cookie format file, and create cookie jar. if args.cookies is None: cookie_file = os.path.expanduser("~/cookies.txt") else: cookie_file = os.path.expanduser(args.cookies) cj = MozillaCookieJar(cookie_file) cj.load(ignore_expires=True, ignore_discard=True) def get_html(url): """ Gets html for processing. """ req = requests.get(url, cookies=cj) html = req.text soup = BeautifulSoup(html, "html.parser") return soup def get_dl_url(html, quality): results = soup.find("a", quality=quality) if results is None: sys.exit("Quality " + quality + " unavailable. Exiting.") dl_url = results.attrs['download'] return dl_url def get_filename(url): """ Get filename from url. """ fname = url.split("/")[-1] fname = fname.split("?")[0] return fname def get_metadata(src): """ Parse src for shoot metadata. """ title = src.find("span", "favorite-button") title = title.attrs['data-title'] desc = src.find("p", "description-text") desc = desc.get_text() if src.find("span", "names h5") is None: actors = None else: actors = src.find("span", "names h5") actors = actors.get_text().strip().split(",") shoot_date = src.find("span", "shoot-date") shoot_date = datetime.datetime.strptime(shoot_date.get_text(), '%B %d, %Y') shoot_date = shoot_date.strftime("%Y-%m-%d") genres = [] actor_thumbs = [] for name in src.find_all("span", "names h5"): for bio in name.find_all("a"): bio_url = "https://www.kink.com" + bio.attrs['href'] bio_page = BeautifulSoup(requests.get(bio_url).text, "html.parser") if bio_page.find("img", "bio-slider-img") is None: if bio_page.find("img", "bio-img") is None: image = "https://cdnp.kink.com/imagedb/43869/i/h/410/16.jpg" else: image = bio_page.find("img", "bio-img").attrs['src'] else: image = bio_page.find("img", "bio-slider-img").attrs['src'] actor_thumbs.append(image) for tag in src.find_all("a", "tag"): g = tag.get_text().replace(',', '').strip() genres.append(g) metadata = {"title": title, "description": desc, "releasedate": shoot_date, "genres": genres, "actors": actors, "actor_thumbs": actor_thumbs} return metadata def download_file(url, fname): """ Download url and save as filename with progressbar """ fpath = Path(fname) if Path.exists(fpath): print("File " + fname + " exists: Skipping.\n") else: chunk_size = 1024 dl = requests.get(url, cookies=cj, stream=True, allow_redirects=True) with open(fname, "wb") as fout: with tqdm(unit="B", unit_scale=True, unit_divisor=1024, miniters=1, desc=fname, total=int(dl.headers.get('content-length')) ) as pbar: for chunk in dl.iter_content(chunk_size=chunk_size): fout.write(chunk) pbar.update(len(chunk)) def write_metadata_nfo(metadata, fname): """ Write metadata to emby compatible NFO file. """ fname = fname.split(".")[0] + ".nfo" i = 0 nfo = open(fname, "w") nfo.write('' + "\n") nfo.write("" + "\n") nfo.write(" " + escape(metadata['description']) + "\n") nfo.write(" " + escape(metadata['title']) + "\n") nfo.write(" " + escape(metadata['releasedate']) + "\n") for tag in metadata['genres']: nfo.write(" " + escape(tag.strip()) + "\n") nfo.write(" Kink.com\n") if metadata['actors'] is not None: for actor in metadata['actors']: nfo.write(" \n") nfo.write(" " + escape(actor.strip()) + "\n") nfo.write(" Actor\n") nfo.write(" " + escape(metadata['actor_thumbs'][i]) + "\n") i += 1 nfo.write(" \n") nfo.write("\n") nfo.close() if __name__ == '__main__': if args.quality is None: quality = "full" elif args.quality in {"full", "hd"}: quality = "full" elif args.quality in {"large", "medium", "mobile", "small"}: quality = args.quality else: sys.exit('''QUALITY must be one of: full, hd, large, medium, mobile, or small.''') # Grab shoot url from commandline arguments url = args.url if url.split('/')[3] == "shoot": soup = get_html(url) dl_url = get_dl_url(soup, quality) fname = get_filename(dl_url) write_metadata_nfo(get_metadata(soup), fname) download_file(dl_url, fname) elif url.split('/')[3] == "channel": soup = get_html(url) shoots = soup.find_all("span", "favorite-button") shoot_urls = [] for shoot_id in shoots: shoot_urls.append("https://www.kink.com/shoot/" + shoot_id['data-id']) for download in shoot_urls: soup = get_html(download) dl_url = get_dl_url(soup, quality) fname = get_filename(dl_url) write_metadata_nfo(get_metadata(soup), fname) download_file(dl_url, fname) else: print("Error: Invalid URL.") 
This is my first Python 3 program, so if it sets your computer on fire or gives you ED, I take no responsibility. If it works for you, great! If you have a comment/critique/question/patch, feel free to post below.
Cheers.
submitted by MeanMrMustardGas to DataHoarder [link] [comments]


2020.08.08 09:48 accappatoiviola Top 10 Websites Evolution – From January 1996 to April 2020

The birth of the Internet was accompanied on 20 December 1990 by an important event: on this date the first website in history was created. With the creation of the World Wide Web first thousands, then millions and finally billions of people in the world can access directly from their computers to millions of different sites of all kinds.
The most successful websites in 1996 are for example AOL, Yahho, Geocities, the famous MSN used by millions of young people to chat, Netscape, Excite and others. The site with the highest number of visits in 1997 did not reach 300 million. Yahoo for example in December 1997 barely made 121,385,000. Also in 2001 Yahoo became the first worldwide site to have more than 1 million visitors per month, a surprise by then.
Full article here: https://www.statisticsanddata.org/top-10-websites-evolution/
submitted by accappatoiviola to teenagers [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 15:10 alollou How to achieve explosive startup growth!

Here is the summary of the book Traction: How any startup can achieve explosive growth.
I hope that you find it useful!

Traction is a sign that your startup is taking off. If you charge, it means customers are buying. If your product is free, it means your user base is growing.
If you have traction, all your technical, market, and team risks become easier to handle. It becomes easier to fund-raise, hire, do press, partnerships, and acquisitions.
Traction trumps everything.

How to think about Traction?

Almost every failed startup has a product. What failed startups don’t have is enough customers.
You should spend your time in parallel, both constructing your product and testing traction channels.
This is what we call the 50 percent rule: spend 50 percent of your time on product and 50% on traction. This rule seems simple but it’s hard to follow because the pull to spend all your attention on the product is strong. You’re probably making a startup because you want to build a particular product. You have a vision, but a lot of traction activities are unknown and outside your vision and comfort zone. So you try to avoid them. Don’t.
Doing product and traction in parallel has these benefits:
Before trying to get traction, you’ll need to define what traction means for your company. You need to set a traction goal. Maybe your current startup goal is to raise funding or become profitable. How many customers do you need and at what rate? You should then focus on marketing activities that result in a significant impact on your traction goal. It should move the needle.
Your startup has 3 phases:

Phase I: Make something people want

In phase 1, your product has the most leaks, it really doesn’t hold water. You shouldn’t scale up your efforts now, but it’s important to send a small amount of water through the bucket so you can see where the holes are and plug them. \ Your goal in phase 1 is to get your first customers and prove your product can get traction. You focus on building your initial product and getting traction in ways that don’t scale: giving talks, writing guest posts, emailing people you know, attending conferences, and doing whatever you can to get in front of customers.

Some founders believe that startups either take off or don’t. Actually startups take off because the founders make them take off!
– Paul Graham

Phase II: Market something people want

Once you hone your product, you have product-market fit and customers are sticking around. Now is the time to scale up your traction efforts. You fine-tune your positioning and marketing messages.

Phase III: Scale your business

As your company grows, smaller traction strategies stop moving the needle, so you’ll start to scale.
In phase 3 you have an established business model and significant position in the market, and you’re focused on scaling to further dominate the market and to profit.

Traction for funding

When pursuing funding, first contact individuals who understand what you’re working on. The better your investors understand what you’re doing, the less traction they’ll need to see before they invest. Also, try friends and family who may not need to see any traction before investing as they’re investing in you personally.

To pivot or not to pivot

Many startups give up way too early. The first thing to look for is evidence of real product engagement, even if it’s only a few dedicated customers. If you have such an engagement, you might be giving up too soon. Look for the bright spots in your customer base and see if you can expand from that base.

How to get traction? The Bullseye framework

The Bullseye framework helps you find the channel that will get you traction. Most businesses actually get zero distribution channels to work. If you can get even a single distribution channel to work, you have a great business. If you try for several but don’t nail one, you’re finished.
You’re aiming for bullseye: the one channel at the center of the target that will unlock your next growth stage. Here are the 3 Bullseye framework steps:

Find what’s possible: The outer-ring

The first step in Bullseye is brainstorming every single traction channel. It’s important not to dismiss any channel in this step. Think of at least one idea for each channel. For example, social ads is a traction channel. Running ads on Facebook or Twitter is a channel strategy within social ads. You could research what marketing strategies worked in your industry as well as the history of companies in your space.

Find what’s probable: The middle-ring

Go around your outer-ring and promote your best and most exciting ideas to your middle-ring. For each traction channel in your middle ring, now construct a cheap traction test you can run to find if the idea is good or not. These tests need to answer the following questions:
  1. What’s the cost of acquiring customers?
  2. How many customers are available?
  3. Are they the right type of customers for you now?
You want to design small scale tests that don’t require much up-front cost or effort. For example, run 4 Facebook ads instead of 40.

Find what’s working: The inner-ring

The final step in Bullseye is to only focus on one channel that will move the needle for your startup: your core channel. At any stage of your startup, you should have one traction channel that you’re focusing on and optimizing.
Most founders mess this up by keeping around distracting marketing efforts in other channels.
If search engine marketing is significantly better for you than other channels, you should focus all your efforts on this core channel and uncover additional strategies and tactics within it.
If no channel seems promising after testing, the whole process should be repeated. If you tried several times with no success, then your product may require more tweaking and your bucket might be still leaky.

How to test traction?

Middle-ring tests: You should be running several cheap tests that give you an indication of how successful a given channel strategy could be.
Inner ring tests:
You’re doing two things:
  1. Optimize your chosen channel strategy to make it the best it can be.
  2. Discover better channel strategies within this traction channel.
There is always a set of things you can tweak. For targeting blogs, you can tweak which blogs to target, type of content, call to action, etc. For search engine marketing, you can tweak keywords, ad-copy, demographics, and landing pages.
A common approach is to use A/B testing, where A is the control group and B is the experimental group. The purpose of it is to measure the effectiveness of change in a button color, an ad image, or a different message on a web page. If the experimental group performs significantly better, you can apply the change, get the benefits, and run another test.
You can use tools such as Optimizely, Visual Website Optimizer, and Unbounce.
Over time, all marketing channels become saturated. To combat this, you should always be trying to discover new strategies and tactics within your channel and conduct small experiments. Also, experiment with new marketing platforms while they’re still in their infancy.

Tools

To track your tests you could start with a simple spreadsheet or use an analytics tool with cohort analysis. You’ll need to answer these questions:
  1. How many people landed on the website?
  2. What are the demographics of my best and worst customers?
  3. Are customers who interact with my support team more likely to stay?
A basic analytics tool like Clicky, Mixpanel, or Chartbeat can help you with these questions. You can use a spreadsheet as the tool to rank and prioritize traction channel strategies. You should include columns like how many customers are available, conversion rate, the cost to acquire a customer, lifetime value of a customer for every given strategy.

How to focus on the right traction goals? The critical path framework

Define your traction goal

You should always have an explicit traction goal you’re working towards. This could be 1,000 paying customers or 100 new daily customers, or 10% of your market. You want a goal where hitting the mark would change things significantly for your company’s outcome.
Once that is defined, you can work backward and set clear time-based subgoals. Such as reaching 1,000 customers by next quarter.
The key is to follow the critical path towards that goal and exclude all features and marketing activities that don’t help you reach your goal. Everything you decide to do should be assessed against your critical path.

Avoid traction biases

Your competitive advantage may be acquiring customers in ways your competition isn’t. That’s why it’s critical to avoid have traction biases. Stop your urge to refuse channels like speaking engagements, sales or affiliate marketing, business development, or trade shows just because you hate talking on the phone or you find the channel annoying or time-consuming.

Targetting blogs

Targeting blogs that your prospective customers read is one of the best ways to get your first wave customers.
Mint’s initial series of tests revealed that targeting blogs should be its core channel. They asked users to embed an “I want mint” badge on their personal blogs and rewarded them with a VIP access before other invitations were sent out. They also directly sponsored blogs. They sent bloggers a message with “Can I send you $500” as the subject and told them a bit about the product.
To find smaller blogs in your niche:
You can also target link-sharing communities like Reddit, Product Hunt, and Hacker News.
Dropbox, Codecademy, Quora, and Gumroad all got their first customers by sharing their products on HackerNews because their products were a good fit for users on that site.

Publicity

Starting out, an article in TechCrunch or The Huffington Post can boost your startup in the eyes of potential customers, investors, or partners. If you have a fascinating story with broad appeal, media outlets will want to hear from you.
It’s easier to start smaller when targeting big media outlets. Sites like TechCrunch and Lifehacker often pick up stories from smaller forums like Hacker News and subreddits. Instead of approaching TechCrunch, try blogs that TechCrunch reads and get story ideas from. It’s easier to get a smaller blog’s attention. Then you might get featured on TechCrunch and then The New York Times which reads TechCrunch!
What gets a reporter’s attention?
A good press angle makes people react emotionally. If it’s not interesting enough to elicit emotion, you don’t have a story worth pitching.
A good first step is using a service like Help A Reporter Out (HARO), where reporters request sources for articles they’re working on. It could get you a mention in the piece and help establish your credibility. Also, you could offer reporters commentary on stories related to your industries.
You can use Twitter to reach reporters online; almost all of them have Twitter accounts and you’d be surprised how few followers many of them have, but they can be highly influential with their content.
Once you have a solid story, you want to draw as much attention to it as you can:
Once your story has been established as a popular news item, try to drag it out as long as you can. Offer interviews that add to the story. Start “How We Did This” follow-up interviews.
As your startup grows you may consider hiring a PR firm or consultant.

Unconventional PR

Nearly every company attempts traditional publicity, but only a few focus on stunts and other unconventional ways to get buzz.

The publicity stunt

Customer Appreciation

Be awesome to your customers. Shortly after Alexis Ohanian launched Hipmunk, he sent out luggage tags and a handwritten note to the first several hundred people who mentioned the site on Twitter.
Holding a contest is also a great repeatable way to generate publicity and get word of mouth. Shopify has an annual Build a Business competition.
Great customer support is so rare that, if you make your customers happy, they’re likely to spread the news of your awesome product. Zappos is one of the best-known examples of a company with incredible customer service and they classify support as a marketing investment.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

SEM is placing ads on search engines like Google. It’s sometimes called “pay-per-click” because you only pay when a user clicks on an ad.
SEM works well for companies looking to sell directly to their target customer. You’re capturing people who are actively searching for solutions.
Click-Through Rate (CTR) The percentage of ad impressions that result in clicks to your site.
Cost per Click (CPC) The amount it costs to buy a click on an ad.
Cost per Acquisition (CPA) How much it costs you to acquire a customer, not just a click. If you buy clicks at $1 and 10% of people who hit your site make a purchase. This makes your CPA at $10.
CPA = CPC / conversion percentage

SEM to get early customer data

You can use SEM as a way to get early customer data in a controlled and predictable way. Even if you don’t expect to be profitable, you can decide to spend a certain amount of money to get an early base of customers and users to inform you about important metrics such as landing page conversion rates, average cost per customer, and lifetime value.
Archives.com used AdWords to drive traffic to their landing pages, even before they built a product, to test interest in a specific product approach. By measuring the CTR for each ad and conversions, they determined which product aspects were the most compelling to potential customers and what those people would actually pay for. When they finally built their product, they built something they knew the market would want.

SEM strategy

Find high-potential keywords, group them into ad groups, and test different ad copy and landing pages within each ad group. As data flows in, remove underperforming ads and landing pages and make tweaks to keep improving results.
Use tools like Optimizely and Visual Website Optimizer to run A/B tests on your landing pages.

Keyword research

Use Google’s keyword planner to discover top keywords your target customers use to find products like yours. You could also use tools such as KeywordSpy, SEMrush, and SpyFu to discover keywords your competition is using.
You can refine your keyword list by adding more terms to the end of each base term to create long-tail keywords. They’re less competitive and have lower search volumes which makes them ideal for testing on smaller groups of customers.
SEM is more expensive for more competitive keywords, so you’ll need to limit yourself to keywords with profitable conversion rates.
You shouldn’t expect your campaigns to be profitable right away, but if you can run a campaign that breaks even after a short period of time, then SEM could be an excellent channel for you to focus on.

Writing ads

Write ads with titles that are catchy, memorable, and relevant to the keywords you’ve paired with it. Include the keyword at least once in the body of your ad and conclude with a prominent call to action like “Check out discounted Nike sneakers!”
Each of your ads and ad groups will have a quality score associated with it. A high-quality score will get you better ad placements and better ad pricing. Click-through rate has the biggest influence on quality score, so you should tailor your ads to the keywords. Google assigns a low-quality score to ads with CTRs below 1.5%

Tactics

Social and Display Ads

Display ads are banner ads you see on websites. Social ads are ads you see on social sites like Facebook and Twitter.
Large display campaigns are often used for branding and awareness, much like offline ads. They can also elicit a direct response such as signing up for an email newsletter or buying a product.
Social ads perform exceptionally well is when they’re used to build an audience and engage with them over time, and eventually convert them to customers.

Display ads

The largest display ad networks are Google Display Network, BuySellAds, Advertising.com, Tribal Fusion, Conversant, and Adblade. Niche ad networks focus on smaller sites that fit certain audience demographics, such as dog lovers or Apple fanatics.
To get started in display advertising, you could start to find out types of ads that work in your industry. You could use tools like MixRank and Adbeat to show you ads your competitors are running and where they place them. Alexa and Quantcast can help you determine who visits the sites that feature your competitors’ ads.

Social ads

Social ads work well for creating interest among potential new customers. The goal is often awareness oriented, not conversion oriented. A purchase takes place further down the line. People visit social media sites for entertainment and interaction, not to see ads.
An effective social ad strategy takes advantage of this reality. Use ads to start conversations about your products by creating compelling content. Instead of directing people to a conversion page, direct them to a piece of content that explains why you developed your product or has other purposes than immediately completing a sale. If you have a piece of content that has high organic reach, when you put paid ads behind that piece, magic happens. Paid is only as good as the content you put behind it. You should employ social ads when you know that a fire is starting around your message and you want to put more oil on it.
Major social sites you may consider are LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, StumbleUpon, Foursquare, Tumblr, Reddit, YouTube, and many others.

Offline Ads

Even today, advertisers spend more on offline ads than they do online. When buying offline ads, You should try to advertise to demographics that match up with your target audience. Ask for an audience prospectus or ad kit.
Not sure if magazine ads are a good channel for you? Buy a small ad in a niche publication and give it a test. Want to see if newspapers would be good? Buy a few ads in a local paper. You can also try radio ads and billboards.

Magazine ads

A compelling magazine or newspaper ad will have an attention-grabbing header, an eye-catching graphic, and a description of the product’s benefits. Also, you should have a strong call to action, like an offer to get a free book.

Direct mail

You could also try direct mail by searching for “direct mail lists” and find companies selling such information. (Beware that it can be perceived as spammy)

Local print

You could also try local print ads like local fliers, directories, calendars, church bulletins, community newsletters, coupon booklets, or yellow pages. These work really well for cheap if you want to get early traction for your company in a specific area.

Outdoor advertising

If you want to buy space on a billboard, you could contact companies like Lamar, Clear Channel, or Outfront Media. Billboards aren’t effective for people to take immediate action, but it’s extremely effective for raising awareness around events, like concerts and conferences.
DuckDuckGo bought a billboard in Google’s backyard and it got big attention and press coverage.
Transit ads can be effective as a direct response tool. You can contact Blue Line Media to help you with Transit ads.

Radio and TV

Radio ads are priced on a cost per point (CPP) basis, where each point represents what it will cost to reach 1% of the station’s listeners. It also depends on your market, when the commercial runs and how many ads you’ve bought.
TV ads are often used as branding mechanisms. Quality is critical for it and production costs can run to tens of thousands. Higher-end ones can cost $200K to make. You’ll also need an average of $350,000 for actual airtime. For smaller startups, you could try local TV spots which is much cheaper.
Infomercials work really well for products in categories like Workout equipment, household products, health products, and work-from-home businesses. They can cost between $50,000 and $500,000, and they’re always direct-response.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

SEO is improving your ranking in search engines in order to get more people to your site.
The most important thing to know about SEO is that the more high-quality links you have to a given site or page, the higher it will rank. You should also make sure you’re using the keywords you want to target appropriately on your pages, like in your page titles and headings.
There are 2 strategies to choose from: fat-head and long-tail.
Fat-head: These are one and two-word searches like “Dishwashers,” and “Facebook.” They are searched a lot and make about 30% of searches and are called.
Long-tail: These are longer searches that don’t get searched as much but add up to the majority of searches made. They make up 70% of searches.
When determining which strategy to use, you should keep in mind that the percentage of clicks drops off dramatically as you rank lower. Only 10% of clicks occur beyond the first page.

Fat-head strategy

To find out if fat-head is worthwhile, research what terms people use to find products in your industry, and then see if search volumes are large enough to move the needle. You can use the keyword planner tool for that. You want to find terms that have enough volume such that if you captured 10% for a given term, it would be meaningful.
The next step is determining the difficulty of ranking high for each term. Use tools like Open Site Explorer. If a competitor has thousands of links for a term, it will likely take a lot of focus on building links and optimizing to rank above them.
Next, narrow your list of targeted keywords to just a handful. Go to Google Trends to see how your keywords have been doing. Are they searched more or less often in the last year? You can further test keywords by buying SEM ads against them. If they convert well, then you have an indication that these keywords could get you strong growth.
Next, orient your site around the terms you’ve chosen. Include phrases you are targeting in your page titles and homepage. Get other sites to link to your site. Links with exact phrase matching from high-quality sites will give you a significant boost.

Long-Tail strategy

Because it’s difficult to rank high for competitive fat-head terms, a popular SEO strategy for early-stage startups is to focus on long-tail. If you bundle a lot of long-term keywords together you can reach a meaningful number of customers.
Find out what are search volumes for a bunch of long-tail keywords in your industry? Do they add up to meaningful amounts? Also, take a look at the analytics software you use on your site or google search console to find some of the search terms people are already using to get to your site. If you’re naturally getting a significant amount of traffic from long-tail keywords, then the strategy might be a good fit. Also, check if competitors use this strategy. If they have a lot of landing pages (search for site:domain.com in google), then it’s a sign that this strategy works for your market. Also, check Alexa search rankings and look at the percentage of visitors your competitors are receiving from search.
If you proceed with a long-tail SEO strategy, you’ll need to produce significant amounts of quality content. If you can’t invest time in that, you can pay a freelancer from Upwork to write an article for every search phrase you want to target.
Another way is to use content that naturally flows from your business. Ask yourself: what data do we naturally collect or generate that other people may find useful. Large businesses like Yelp, TripAdvisor, and Wikipedia all gained most of their traffic by producing automated long-tail content. Sometimes the data is hidden behind a login screen and all you need to do is expose it to search engines, or aggregate it in a useful manner.

How to get links?

Don’t buy links, you’ll be penalized by search engines for it. Instead, you can do:

Content Marketing

Companies like Moz and Unbounce have well-known company blogs that are their biggest source of customer acquisition.
Unbounce started a blog and an email list from day one. They used social media to drive readers to your blog. They pinged twitter influencers to ask for feedback, gave away free infographics, and e-books. These actions don’t scale but they push them to a point where their content will spread on its own.
OkCupid is a free online dating site. They intentionally wrote controversial posts like “How your race affects the messages you get” to generate traffic and conversation.

Tactics

Email Marketing

Email marketing is a personal channel. Messages from your company sit next to emails from friends and family. That’s why email marketing works best when personalized. It can be used to build familiarity with prospects, acquire customers, and retain customers you already have.

Email marketing to Find customers

Email marketing to Engage customers

If a customer never gets the value of your product, how can you expect them to pay for it or recommend it to others?

Email marketing to Retain customers

Email marketing can be the most effective channel to bring people back to your site. Twitter sends you an email with a weekly digest of popular tweets and your new notifications.
More business-oriented products usually focus on reminders, reports, and information about how you’re getting value from the product. Mint sends a weekly financial summary to show your expenses and income over the previous week.
You can also use it to surprise and delight your customers. Planscope sends a weekly email to customers telling them how much they made that week. Photo apps will send you pictures you took a year ago.

Email marketing to Drive revenue

You can send a series of emails aimed at upselling customers.
WP Engine sends prospects an email course about Wordpress, and near the end of the email, they make a pitch to signup for its premium Wordpress hosting service.
If one of your customers abandoned a shopping cart, send her a targeted email a day or two later with a special offer for whatever item is left in the cart.
You can use email to explain a premium feature a customer is missing out on and how it can help them in a big way.

Email marketing to get referrals

Groupon generates referrals by incentivizing people to tell their friends about discounts.

Tactics

Viral Marketing

Viral marketing is getting your existing customers to refer others to your product. It was the driving force behind the explosive growth of Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Dropbox, Instagram, Snapchat, and Pinterest.
It’s so powerful that even if you can’t achieve exponential growth with it, you can still get meaningful growth. If your customer refers a new customer within the first week, you’ll go from ten customers to twenty and double every week without any additional marketing.
The oldest form of virality occurs when your product is so remarkable that people naturally tell others about it — pure word of mouth.
Inherent virality occurs when you can get value from a product only by inviting other customers, like Skype, Snapchat, and WhatsApp.
Others grow by encouraging collaboration like Google Docs.
Some embed virality like adding “Get a free email account with Hotmail” or “Sent from iPhone” to default signatures. Mailchimp and other email marketing products add branding to free customers’ emails.
Some incentivize customers to move through a viral loop, like Dropbox giving you more space if you invite friends to sign up. Airbnb, Uber, and PayPal give you account credits for referring friends.
Some add embedded buttons and widgets to grow virally, like Reddit and YouTube.
Some broadcast users activities on their social networks, like Spotify posting on Facebook when you play a song, or Pinterest when you pin content.
The viral coefficient K is the number of additional customers you can get for each customer you bring in. It depends on i, the number of invites sent per user, and conversion percentage (who will actually sign up after receiving an invite)
K = i * conversion percentage
Any viral coefficient above 1 will result in exponential growth. Any viral coefficient over 0.5 helps your efforts to grow considerably.
You can increase the number of invites per user i by including features that encourage sharing, such as posting to social networks. You can increase the conversion percentage by testing different signup flows. Try cutting out pages or signup fields.
Viral cycle time is how long it takes a user to go through your viral loop. Shortening your cycle time drastically increases the rate at which you go viral. You can do it by creating urgency or incentivizing customers to move through the loops.

Tactics

Engineering as Marketing

You can build tools like calculators, widgets, and educational microsites to get your company in front of potential customers.
HubSpot has Marketing Grade, a free marketing review tool. It’s free, gives you valuable information, and provides HubSpot with the information they use to qualify you as a potential prospect.
Moz has two free SEO tools, Followerwong and Open Site Explorer. They’ve driven tens of thousands of leads for Moz.
WP Engine has a speed testing tool that asks only for an email address in exchange for a detailed report on your site’s speed.

Business Development

With business development, you’re partnering to reach customers in a way that benefits both parties.
Google got most of its initial traction from a partnership with Netscape to be the default search engine and an agreement with Yahoo to power its online searches.
Business development can take the form of:
You should have already defined your traction goal and milestones, and you shouldn’t accept any partnership that doesn’t align with it. Many startups waste resources because it’s tempting to make deals with bigger companies.

Sales

Sales is the process of generating leads, qualifying them, and converting them into paying customers. It’s particularly useful for expensive and enterprise products.

Structuring the sales conversation

Situation questions. Ask one or two questions per conversation. The more you ask situation questions, the less likely they’re going to close.
Problem questions. Use sparingly.
Implication questions. Meant to make a prospect aware of the large implications that stem from the problem.
Need-payoff questions. Focus attention on your solution and get buyers to think about the benefits of solving the problem.

Cold calls

Be judicious about the people you contact. You want someone who is one-two levels up in the organization. They have enough perspective on the problem and some authority for decision making. Avoid starting at the top unless you’re calling a very small business.
Try to get answers about:

Tactics

It’s better to gain traction through a marketing channel first, then use sales as a conversion tool to close leads. The next stage is lead qualification: determine how ready a prospect is to buy. Once you’ve qualified the leads, you should lay out exactly what are you going to do for the customer. Set up a timetable for it and get them to commit with a yes or no whether they’re going to buy. Closing leads can be done by a sales team who does a webinar or product demo and has an ongoing email sequence that ends with a purchase request. In other cases, you may need a field sales team that actually visits prospective customers for some part of the process.
A checklist that can help you with sales:
I removed the last sections because of the post character limit. Here are two:
submitted by alollou to startups [link] [comments]


2020.06.04 14:56 alollou Free marketing guide for startups: How to achieve explosive growth!

Here is the summary of the book Traction: How any startup can achieve explosive growth.
I hope that you find it useful!

Traction is a sign that your startup is taking off. If you charge, it means customers are buying. If your product is free, it means your user base is growing.
If you have traction, all your technical, market, and team risks become easier to handle. It becomes easier to fund-raise, hire, do press, partnerships, and acquisitions.
Traction trumps everything.

How to think about Traction?

Almost every failed startup has a product. What failed startups don’t have is enough customers.
You should spend your time in parallel, both constructing your product and testing traction channels.
This is what we call the 50 percent rule: spend 50 percent of your time on product and 50% on traction. This rule seems simple but it’s hard to follow because the pull to spend all your attention on the product is strong. You’re probably making a startup because you want to build a particular product. You have a vision, but a lot of traction activities are unknown and outside your vision and comfort zone. So you try to avoid them. Don’t.
Doing product and traction in parallel has these benefits:
Before trying to get traction, you’ll need to define what traction means for your company. You need to set a traction goal. Maybe your current startup goal is to raise funding or become profitable. How many customers do you need and at what rate? You should then focus on marketing activities that result in a significant impact on your traction goal. It should move the needle.
Your startup has 3 phases:

Phase I: Make something people want

In phase 1, your product has the most leaks, it really doesn’t hold water. You shouldn’t scale up your efforts now, but it’s important to send a small amount of water through the bucket so you can see where the holes are and plug them. \ Your goal in phase 1 is to get your first customers and prove your product can get traction. You focus on building your initial product and getting traction in ways that don’t scale: giving talks, writing guest posts, emailing people you know, attending conferences, and doing whatever you can to get in front of customers.

Some founders believe that startups either take off or don’t. Actually startups take off because the founders make them take off!
– Paul Graham

Phase II: Market something people want

Once you hone your product, you have product-market fit and customers are sticking around. Now is the time to scale up your traction efforts. You fine-tune your positioning and marketing messages.

Phase III: Scale your business

As your company grows, smaller traction strategies stop moving the needle, so you’ll start to scale.
In phase 3 you have an established business model and significant position in the market, and you’re focused on scaling to further dominate the market and to profit.

Traction for funding

When pursuing funding, first contact individuals who understand what you’re working on. The better your investors understand what you’re doing, the less traction they’ll need to see before they invest. Also, try friends and family who may not need to see any traction before investing as they’re investing in you personally.

To pivot or not to pivot

Many startups give up way too early. The first thing to look for is evidence of real product engagement, even if it’s only a few dedicated customers. If you have such an engagement, you might be giving up too soon. Look for the bright spots in your customer base and see if you can expand from that base.

How to get traction? The Bullseye framework

The Bullseye framework helps you find the channel that will get you traction. Most businesses actually get zero distribution channels to work. If you can get even a single distribution channel to work, you have a great business. If you try for several but don’t nail one, you’re finished.
You’re aiming for bullseye: the one channel at the center of the target that will unlock your next growth stage. Here are the 3 Bullseye framework steps:

Find what’s possible: The outer-ring

The first step in Bullseye is brainstorming every single traction channel. It’s important not to dismiss any channel in this step. Think of at least one idea for each channel. For example, social ads is a traction channel. Running ads on Facebook or Twitter is a channel strategy within social ads. You could research what marketing strategies worked in your industry as well as the history of companies in your space.

Find what’s probable: The middle-ring

Go around your outer-ring and promote your best and most exciting ideas to your middle-ring. For each traction channel in your middle ring, now construct a cheap traction test you can run to find if the idea is good or not. These tests need to answer the following questions:
  1. What’s the cost of acquiring customers?
  2. How many customers are available?
  3. Are they the right type of customers for you now?
You want to design small scale tests that don’t require much up-front cost or effort. For example, run 4 Facebook ads instead of 40.

Find what’s working: The inner-ring

The final step in Bullseye is to only focus on one channel that will move the needle for your startup: your core channel. At any stage of your startup, you should have one traction channel that you’re focusing on and optimizing.
Most founders mess this up by keeping around distracting marketing efforts in other channels.
If search engine marketing is significantly better for you than other channels, you should focus all your efforts on this core channel and uncover additional strategies and tactics within it.
If no channel seems promising after testing, the whole process should be repeated. If you tried several times with no success, then your product may require more tweaking and your bucket might be still leaky.

How to test traction?

Middle-ring tests: You should be running several cheap tests that give you an indication of how successful a given channel strategy could be.
Inner ring tests:
You’re doing two things:
  1. Optimize your chosen channel strategy to make it the best it can be.
  2. Discover better channel strategies within this traction channel.
There is always a set of things you can tweak. For targeting blogs, you can tweak which blogs to target, type of content, call to action, etc. For search engine marketing, you can tweak keywords, ad-copy, demographics, and landing pages.
A common approach is to use A/B testing, where A is the control group and B is the experimental group. The purpose of it is to measure the effectiveness of change in a button color, an ad image, or a different message on a web page. If the experimental group performs significantly better, you can apply the change, get the benefits, and run another test.
You can use tools such as Optimizely, Visual Website Optimizer, and Unbounce.
Over time, all marketing channels become saturated. To combat this, you should always be trying to discover new strategies and tactics within your channel and conduct small experiments. Also, experiment with new marketing platforms while they’re still in their infancy.

Tools

To track your tests you could start with a simple spreadsheet or use an analytics tool with cohort analysis. You’ll need to answer these questions:
  1. How many people landed on the website?
  2. What are the demographics of my best and worst customers?
  3. Are customers who interact with my support team more likely to stay?
A basic analytics tool like Clicky, Mixpanel, or Chartbeat can help you with these questions. You can use a spreadsheet as the tool to rank and prioritize traction channel strategies. You should include columns like how many customers are available, conversion rate, the cost to acquire a customer, lifetime value of a customer for every given strategy.

How to focus on the right traction goals? The critical path framework

Define your traction goal

You should always have an explicit traction goal you’re working towards. This could be 1,000 paying customers or 100 new daily customers, or 10% of your market. You want a goal where hitting the mark would change things significantly for your company’s outcome.
Once that is defined, you can work backward and set clear time-based subgoals. Such as reaching 1,000 customers by next quarter.
The key is to follow the critical path towards that goal and exclude all features and marketing activities that don’t help you reach your goal. Everything you decide to do should be assessed against your critical path.

Avoid traction biases

Your competitive advantage may be acquiring customers in ways your competition isn’t. That’s why it’s critical to avoid have traction biases. Stop your urge to refuse channels like speaking engagements, sales or affiliate marketing, business development, or trade shows just because you hate talking on the phone or you find the channel annoying or time-consuming.

Targetting blogs

Targeting blogs that your prospective customers read is one of the best ways to get your first wave customers.
Mint’s initial series of tests revealed that targeting blogs should be its core channel. They asked users to embed an “I want mint” badge on their personal blogs and rewarded them with a VIP access before other invitations were sent out. They also directly sponsored blogs. They sent bloggers a message with “Can I send you $500” as the subject and told them a bit about the product.
To find smaller blogs in your niche:
You can also target link-sharing communities like Reddit, Product Hunt, and Hacker News.
Dropbox, Codecademy, Quora, and Gumroad all got their first customers by sharing their products on HackerNews because their products were a good fit for users on that site.

Publicity

Starting out, an article in TechCrunch or The Huffington Post can boost your startup in the eyes of potential customers, investors, or partners. If you have a fascinating story with broad appeal, media outlets will want to hear from you.
It’s easier to start smaller when targeting big media outlets. Sites like TechCrunch and Lifehacker often pick up stories from smaller forums like Hacker News and subreddits. Instead of approaching TechCrunch, try blogs that TechCrunch reads and get story ideas from. It’s easier to get a smaller blog’s attention. Then you might get featured on TechCrunch and then The New York Times which reads TechCrunch!
What gets a reporter’s attention?
A good press angle makes people react emotionally. If it’s not interesting enough to elicit emotion, you don’t have a story worth pitching.
A good first step is using a service like Help A Reporter Out (HARO), where reporters request sources for articles they’re working on. It could get you a mention in the piece and help establish your credibility. Also, you could offer reporters commentary on stories related to your industries.
You can use Twitter to reach reporters online; almost all of them have Twitter accounts and you’d be surprised how few followers many of them have, but they can be highly influential with their content.
Once you have a solid story, you want to draw as much attention to it as you can:
Once your story has been established as a popular news item, try to drag it out as long as you can. Offer interviews that add to the story. Start “How We Did This” follow-up interviews.
As your startup grows you may consider hiring a PR firm or consultant.

Unconventional PR

Nearly every company attempts traditional publicity, but only a few focus on stunts and other unconventional ways to get buzz.

The publicity stunt

Customer Appreciation

Be awesome to your customers. Shortly after Alexis Ohanian launched Hipmunk, he sent out luggage tags and a handwritten note to the first several hundred people who mentioned the site on Twitter.
Holding a contest is also a great repeatable way to generate publicity and get word of mouth. Shopify has an annual Build a Business competition.
Great customer support is so rare that, if you make your customers happy, they’re likely to spread the news of your awesome product. Zappos is one of the best-known examples of a company with incredible customer service and they classify support as a marketing investment.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

SEM is placing ads on search engines like Google. It’s sometimes called “pay-per-click” because you only pay when a user clicks on an ad.
SEM works well for companies looking to sell directly to their target customer. You’re capturing people who are actively searching for solutions.
Click-Through Rate (CTR) The percentage of ad impressions that result in clicks to your site.
Cost per Click (CPC) The amount it costs to buy a click on an ad.
Cost per Acquisition (CPA) How much it costs you to acquire a customer, not just a click. If you buy clicks at $1 and 10% of people who hit your site make a purchase. This makes your CPA at $10.
CPA = CPC / conversion percentage

SEM to get early customer data

You can use SEM as a way to get early customer data in a controlled and predictable way. Even if you don’t expect to be profitable, you can decide to spend a certain amount of money to get an early base of customers and users to inform you about important metrics such as landing page conversion rates, average cost per customer, and lifetime value.
Archives.com used AdWords to drive traffic to their landing pages, even before they built a product, to test interest in a specific product approach. By measuring the CTR for each ad and conversions, they determined which product aspects were the most compelling to potential customers and what those people would actually pay for. When they finally built their product, they built something they knew the market would want.

SEM strategy

Find high-potential keywords, group them into ad groups, and test different ad copy and landing pages within each ad group. As data flows in, remove underperforming ads and landing pages and make tweaks to keep improving results.
Use tools like Optimizely and Visual Website Optimizer to run A/B tests on your landing pages.

Keyword research

Use Google’s keyword planner to discover top keywords your target customers use to find products like yours. You could also use tools such as KeywordSpy, SEMrush, and SpyFu to discover keywords your competition is using.
You can refine your keyword list by adding more terms to the end of each base term to create long-tail keywords. They’re less competitive and have lower search volumes which makes them ideal for testing on smaller groups of customers.
SEM is more expensive for more competitive keywords, so you’ll need to limit yourself to keywords with profitable conversion rates.
You shouldn’t expect your campaigns to be profitable right away, but if you can run a campaign that breaks even after a short period of time, then SEM could be an excellent channel for you to focus on.

Writing ads

Write ads with titles that are catchy, memorable, and relevant to the keywords you’ve paired with it. Include the keyword at least once in the body of your ad and conclude with a prominent call to action like “Check out discounted Nike sneakers!”
Each of your ads and ad groups will have a quality score associated with it. A high-quality score will get you better ad placements and better ad pricing. Click-through rate has the biggest influence on quality score, so you should tailor your ads to the keywords. Google assigns a low-quality score to ads with CTRs below 1.5%

Tactics

Social and Display Ads

Display ads are banner ads you see on websites. Social ads are ads you see on social sites like Facebook and Twitter.
Large display campaigns are often used for branding and awareness, much like offline ads. They can also elicit a direct response such as signing up for an email newsletter or buying a product.
Social ads perform exceptionally well is when they’re used to build an audience and engage with them over time, and eventually convert them to customers.

Display ads

The largest display ad networks are Google Display Network, BuySellAds, Advertising.com, Tribal Fusion, Conversant, and Adblade. Niche ad networks focus on smaller sites that fit certain audience demographics, such as dog lovers or Apple fanatics.
To get started in display advertising, you could start to find out types of ads that work in your industry. You could use tools like MixRank and Adbeat to show you ads your competitors are running and where they place them. Alexa and Quantcast can help you determine who visits the sites that feature your competitors’ ads.

Social ads

Social ads work well for creating interest among potential new customers. The goal is often awareness oriented, not conversion oriented. A purchase takes place further down the line. People visit social media sites for entertainment and interaction, not to see ads.
An effective social ad strategy takes advantage of this reality. Use ads to start conversations about your products by creating compelling content. Instead of directing people to a conversion page, direct them to a piece of content that explains why you developed your product or has other purposes than immediately completing a sale. If you have a piece of content that has high organic reach, when you put paid ads behind that piece, magic happens. Paid is only as good as the content you put behind it. You should employ social ads when you know that a fire is starting around your message and you want to put more oil on it.
Major social sites you may consider are LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, StumbleUpon, Foursquare, Tumblr, Reddit, YouTube, and many others.

Offline Ads

Even today, advertisers spend more on offline ads than they do online. When buying offline ads, You should try to advertise to demographics that match up with your target audience. Ask for an audience prospectus or ad kit.
Not sure if magazine ads are a good channel for you? Buy a small ad in a niche publication and give it a test. Want to see if newspapers would be good? Buy a few ads in a local paper. You can also try radio ads and billboards.

Magazine ads

A compelling magazine or newspaper ad will have an attention-grabbing header, an eye-catching graphic, and a description of the product’s benefits. Also, you should have a strong call to action, like an offer to get a free book.

Direct mail

You could also try direct mail by searching for “direct mail lists” and find companies selling such information. (Beware that it can be perceived as spammy)

Local print

You could also try local print ads like local fliers, directories, calendars, church bulletins, community newsletters, coupon booklets, or yellow pages. These work really well for cheap if you want to get early traction for your company in a specific area.

Outdoor advertising

If you want to buy space on a billboard, you could contact companies like Lamar, Clear Channel, or Outfront Media. Billboards aren’t effective for people to take immediate action, but it’s extremely effective for raising awareness around events, like concerts and conferences.
DuckDuckGo bought a billboard in Google’s backyard and it got big attention and press coverage.
Transit ads can be effective as a direct response tool. You can contact Blue Line Media to help you with Transit ads.

Radio and TV

Radio ads are priced on a cost per point (CPP) basis, where each point represents what it will cost to reach 1% of the station’s listeners. It also depends on your market, when the commercial runs and how many ads you’ve bought.
TV ads are often used as branding mechanisms. Quality is critical for it and production costs can run to tens of thousands. Higher-end ones can cost $200K to make. You’ll also need an average of $350,000 for actual airtime. For smaller startups, you could try local TV spots which is much cheaper.
Infomercials work really well for products in categories like Workout equipment, household products, health products, and work-from-home businesses. They can cost between $50,000 and $500,000, and they’re always direct-response.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

SEO is improving your ranking in search engines in order to get more people to your site.
The most important thing to know about SEO is that the more high-quality links you have to a given site or page, the higher it will rank. You should also make sure you’re using the keywords you want to target appropriately on your pages, like in your page titles and headings.
There are 2 strategies to choose from: fat-head and long-tail.
Fat-head: These are one and two-word searches like “Dishwashers,” and “Facebook.” They are searched a lot and make about 30% of searches and are called.
Long-tail: These are longer searches that don’t get searched as much but add up to the majority of searches made. They make up 70% of searches.
When determining which strategy to use, you should keep in mind that the percentage of clicks drops off dramatically as you rank lower. Only 10% of clicks occur beyond the first page.

Fat-head strategy

To find out if fat-head is worthwhile, research what terms people use to find products in your industry, and then see if search volumes are large enough to move the needle. You can use the keyword planner tool for that. You want to find terms that have enough volume such that if you captured 10% for a given term, it would be meaningful.
The next step is determining the difficulty of ranking high for each term. Use tools like Open Site Explorer. If a competitor has thousands of links for a term, it will likely take a lot of focus on building links and optimizing to rank above them.
Next, narrow your list of targeted keywords to just a handful. Go to Google Trends to see how your keywords have been doing. Are they searched more or less often in the last year? You can further test keywords by buying SEM ads against them. If they convert well, then you have an indication that these keywords could get you strong growth.
Next, orient your site around the terms you’ve chosen. Include phrases you are targeting in your page titles and homepage. Get other sites to link to your site. Links with exact phrase matching from high-quality sites will give you a significant boost.

Long-Tail strategy

Because it’s difficult to rank high for competitive fat-head terms, a popular SEO strategy for early-stage startups is to focus on long-tail. If you bundle a lot of long-term keywords together you can reach a meaningful number of customers.
Find out what are search volumes for a bunch of long-tail keywords in your industry? Do they add up to meaningful amounts? Also, take a look at the analytics software you use on your site or google search console to find some of the search terms people are already using to get to your site. If you’re naturally getting a significant amount of traffic from long-tail keywords, then the strategy might be a good fit. Also, check if competitors use this strategy. If they have a lot of landing pages (search for site:domain.com in google), then it’s a sign that this strategy works for your market. Also, check Alexa search rankings and look at the percentage of visitors your competitors are receiving from search.
If you proceed with a long-tail SEO strategy, you’ll need to produce significant amounts of quality content. If you can’t invest time in that, you can pay a freelancer from Upwork to write an article for every search phrase you want to target.
Another way is to use content that naturally flows from your business. Ask yourself: what data do we naturally collect or generate that other people may find useful. Large businesses like Yelp, TripAdvisor, and Wikipedia all gained most of their traffic by producing automated long-tail content. Sometimes the data is hidden behind a login screen and all you need to do is expose it to search engines, or aggregate it in a useful manner.

How to get links?

Don’t buy links, you’ll be penalized by search engines for it. Instead, you can do:

Content Marketing

Companies like Moz and Unbounce have well-known company blogs that are their biggest source of customer acquisition.
Unbounce started a blog and an email list from day one. They used social media to drive readers to your blog. They pinged twitter influencers to ask for feedback, gave away free infographics, and e-books. These actions don’t scale but they push them to a point where their content will spread on its own.
OkCupid is a free online dating site. They intentionally wrote controversial posts like “How your race affects the messages you get” to generate traffic and conversation.

Tactics

Email Marketing

Email marketing is a personal channel. Messages from your company sit next to emails from friends and family. That’s why email marketing works best when personalized. It can be used to build familiarity with prospects, acquire customers, and retain customers you already have.

Email marketing to Find customers

Email marketing to Engage customers

If a customer never gets the value of your product, how can you expect them to pay for it or recommend it to others?

Email marketing to Retain customers

Email marketing can be the most effective channel to bring people back to your site. Twitter sends you an email with a weekly digest of popular tweets and your new notifications.
More business-oriented products usually focus on reminders, reports, and information about how you’re getting value from the product. Mint sends a weekly financial summary to show your expenses and income over the previous week.
You can also use it to surprise and delight your customers. Planscope sends a weekly email to customers telling them how much they made that week. Photo apps will send you pictures you took a year ago.

Email marketing to Drive revenue

You can send a series of emails aimed at upselling customers.
WP Engine sends prospects an email course about Wordpress, and near the end of the email, they make a pitch to signup for its premium Wordpress hosting service.
If one of your customers abandoned a shopping cart, send her a targeted email a day or two later with a special offer for whatever item is left in the cart.
You can use email to explain a premium feature a customer is missing out on and how it can help them in a big way.

Email marketing to get referrals

Groupon generates referrals by incentivizing people to tell their friends about discounts.

Tactics

Viral Marketing

Viral marketing is getting your existing customers to refer others to your product. It was the driving force behind the explosive growth of Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Dropbox, Instagram, Snapchat, and Pinterest.
It’s so powerful that even if you can’t achieve exponential growth with it, you can still get meaningful growth. If your customer refers a new customer within the first week, you’ll go from ten customers to twenty and double every week without any additional marketing.
The oldest form of virality occurs when your product is so remarkable that people naturally tell others about it — pure word of mouth.
Inherent virality occurs when you can get value from a product only by inviting other customers, like Skype, Snapchat, and WhatsApp.
Others grow by encouraging collaboration like Google Docs.
Some embed virality like adding “Get a free email account with Hotmail” or “Sent from iPhone” to default signatures. Mailchimp and other email marketing products add branding to free customers’ emails.
Some incentivize customers to move through a viral loop, like Dropbox giving you more space if you invite friends to sign up. Airbnb, Uber, and PayPal give you account credits for referring friends.
Some add embedded buttons and widgets to grow virally, like Reddit and YouTube.
Some broadcast users activities on their social networks, like Spotify posting on Facebook when you play a song, or Pinterest when you pin content.
The viral coefficient K is the number of additional customers you can get for each customer you bring in. It depends on i, the number of invites sent per user, and conversion percentage (who will actually sign up after receiving an invite)
K = i * conversion percentage
Any viral coefficient above 1 will result in exponential growth. Any viral coefficient over 0.5 helps your efforts to grow considerably.
You can increase the number of invites per user i by including features that encourage sharing, such as posting to social networks. You can increase the conversion percentage by testing different signup flows. Try cutting out pages or signup fields.
Viral cycle time is how long it takes a user to go through your viral loop. Shortening your cycle time drastically increases the rate at which you go viral. You can do it by creating urgency or incentivizing customers to move through the loops.

Tactics

Engineering as Marketing

You can build tools like calculators, widgets, and educational microsites to get your company in front of potential customers.
HubSpot has Marketing Grade, a free marketing review tool. It’s free, gives you valuable information, and provides HubSpot with the information they use to qualify you as a potential prospect.
Moz has two free SEO tools, Followerwong and Open Site Explorer. They’ve driven tens of thousands of leads for Moz.
WP Engine has a speed testing tool that asks only for an email address in exchange for a detailed report on your site’s speed.

Business Development

With business development, you’re partnering to reach customers in a way that benefits both parties.
Google got most of its initial traction from a partnership with Netscape to be the default search engine and an agreement with Yahoo to power its online searches.
Business development can take the form of:
You should have already defined your traction goal and milestones, and you shouldn’t accept any partnership that doesn’t align with it. Many startups waste resources because it’s tempting to make deals with bigger companies.

Sales

Sales is the process of generating leads, qualifying them, and converting them into paying customers. It’s particularly useful for expensive and enterprise products.

Structuring the sales conversation

Situation questions. Ask one or two questions per conversation. The more you ask situation questions, the less likely they’re going to close.
Problem questions. Use sparingly.
Implication questions. Meant to make a prospect aware of the large implications that stem from the problem.
Need-payoff questions. Focus attention on your solution and get buyers to think about the benefits of solving the problem.

Cold calls

Be judicious about the people you contact. You want someone who is one-two levels up in the organization. They have enough perspective on the problem and some authority for decision making. Avoid starting at the top unless you’re calling a very small business.
Try to get answers about:

Tactics

It’s better to gain traction through a marketing channel first, then use sales as a conversion tool to close leads. The next stage is lead qualification: determine how ready a prospect is to buy. Once you’ve qualified the leads, you should lay out exactly what are you going to do for the customer. Set up a timetable for it and get them to commit with a yes or no whether they’re going to buy. Closing leads can be done by a sales team who does a webinar or product demo and has an ongoing email sequence that ends with a purchase request. In other cases, you may need a field sales team that actually visits prospective customers for some part of the process.
A checklist that can help you with sales:
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2020.05.09 07:33 codeavail_expert Java Vs JavaScript: Must Know the Difference Between Both Languages

Here in this blog, CodeAvail experts will explain to you Java vs Javascript in detail. Know the difference between both languages.

Java vs JavaScript

New learners and non-tech individuals are confused with Java and JavaScript programming because the word “Java” is common in both the languages. Both the programming languages utilize in their regard and both have strengths over the other. One doesn’t have to be better than the other programming language.
Programmers utilize both Java and Javascript for a variety of various tasks. JavaScript is not related to the Java programming language. Both Java and JavaScript languages have a C like a syntax and are broadly utilized in client-side Web applications. But there are some similarities only. To clear out the difference between Java vs JavaScript we have created a table for your better understanding.

What is the Java programming language?

Java is a computer programming language utilized for general purposes and is object-oriented, concurrent, and class-based. By James Gosling, it was invented in 1995 and developed by Sun Microsystems. It took more than 10 days to develop it.
A number of Sun Microsystems engineers worked together and created Java. The language is made so that developers can run it on all platforms that support Java without requiring to be recompiled.

Some features of Java

Some of the essential Java features are:

What is the Javascript language?

Javascript is recognized as the most powerful Coding language on the web. It is originally utilized to develop network-oriented applications. It is mostly utilized for web pages. Whose implementations support client-side script to communicate with the user and create dynamic pages.
Javascript is first recognized as LiveScript, but after that Netscape changed its name to Javascript. By utilizing HTML one can only create a web page. But cannot run any logic on a web browser like the summation of two numbers, correct any condition decision-making statement (if-else). All these tasks cant be done by using HTML So for all these tasks we require JavaScript.
Features of Javascript

Significant Differences on Java vs Java-Script:

A list of important differences between both Java and JavaScript language
read more... about Java vs Javascript
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2020.04.17 13:52 Programming-Help Help With JavaScript By CS Experts

If you are searching for online help with JavaScript then you can get JavaScript Assignment Help from us. We provide online JavaScript assignment help that will help you to score high grades in your assignments.

Overview of JavaScript Language

JavaScript was initially developed in Netscape, by Brendan Eich. Battling with Microsoft over the Internet, Netscape considered their client-server solution as a distributed OS, running a portable version of Sun Microsystems' Java. Because Java was a competitor of C++ and aimed at professional programmers, Netscape also required a lightweight interpreted language that would complement Java by appealing to nonprofessional programmers, like Microsoft's Visual Basic.
Developed under the name Mocha, LiveScript was the official name for the language when it first shipped in beta releases of Netscape Navigator 2.0 in September 1995, but it was renamed JavaScript when it was arranged in the Netscape browser version 2.0B3.
JavaScript controls the behavior of the web page. It runs on the client-side of the web. The functions of javascript are both procedural and object-oriented language. It supports different programming styles like; event-driven, functional, and imperative programming styles.
The engines of javascript also relate to the different types of host software, server-side in web servers and databases. It also available in various non-web programs like word processors and PDF software.
In November 1996, Netscape announced that it had submitted JavaScript to Ecma International for consideration as an industry standard, and subsequent work resulted in the standardized version named ECMAScript.

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JavaScript Used For

JavaScript is a very easy programming language that will see a lot of progress in recent times. Some applications of JavaScript are
Form verification is the conditions that programmers set about the data to be entered by the user. You may have noticed that no error message occurs when you enter an alphabet on the phone. This is done by using help with JavaScript.
Providing these validations on the client-side saves traffic on the server.
Most up-to-date development javascript is used as a server-side technology. The nodes are available various modules like JS and Express JS which are very efficient for handling real-time applications and are much faster than other technologies available right now. Build a real-time pole app with Node.js, Express, AngularJS, and MongoDB.
JavaScript is also widely used to provide other applications- popups, animations, visual effects, etc. Various libraries are available for js such as jquery, which contains pre-written files that can be easily accessed on the website.
Overall JavaScript is a very useful tool for web development.

Which is the best way to practice JavaScript

The best way to practice JavaScript is to work on the project. You can also get the help with javascript from our experts. They are always available to help you.
You can also write JavaScript at the end of the server and do even more practice. Node.js will help you with this.
Some sample projects that can be carried out in the front-end by any set of stacks:
Do not complete the project at once. Come to the to-do list. Don't try to build all the features of Advanced ToDo at once. Go by step like:

Best JavaScript IDE

Well, before answering that question, the number of IDE escaping is quite good, but I would say it depends on the complexity of the JavaScript project and the type of other techniques you can use with it.
Let's look at some of the lists
Atom's JavaScript package features include a selection of several features, including context-aware auto-fulfillment. The code navigation is easier than ever with an outline view for your document, search for all references, and go to the definition. Developers can also use hover to reveal information and use the full set of diagnostic tools (errors and warnings) to better understand their code.
The bracket is an open-source code editor for the web from Adobe. Since it is written in JavaScript, HTML, and CSS, Bracket provides a basic code editing experience for developers without any compatibility issues.
VS Code provides smart perfection with IntelliSense, built-in Git integration, the ability to debug code directly from the editor, and much more. VS Code is highly extensible with many customization options through many extensions. It also provides support in dozens of languages.
Sublime is a sophisticated text editor for text codes, markup, and prose. You have thousands of packages that you can install using package controls to make JavaScript control easier.
NetBeans IDE makes it easy to easily develop applications with a set of languages for desktop, mobile, and web. And of course, some JavaScript developments support IntelliJ IDEAoffers.
WebStorm is one of the most popular JavaScript IDE in the market. While this solution to JetBrains isn't cheap at all, you're getting a powerful IDE for modern JavaScript development with smart coding support. Its features include code completion, error detection, and refactoring for many languages such as JavaScript, Node.js, HTML, and CSS.
The underlying debugger targets client-side code as well as Node.js applications. Developers can evaluate their code without exiting the IDE. With the report card visualized for debug tests, the test can also be performed within the webstorm. Spy-js traces JavaScript code to help prevent bottlenecks.
For more information about the help with javascript get in touch with us.

Javascript Assignment Help Topics Covered By Our Experienced Writers

Our writers are well experienced in the field of Computer Science. They offer top-notch help with JavaScript assignment to the college students. Their vast knowledge and expertise in the programming field are beneficial for you. These are a few JavaScript assignment help topics cover by our professional assignment expert.
These are some JavaScript assignment help topics in which our experts provide assistance. You can get the help with JavaScript assignment solution available on Java Assignment Help.

Help with JavaScript assignment- What Can JavaScript Perform?

JavaScript provides a programming device to HTML creative designers -HTML experts are usually not developers, however, JavaScript is a scripting language with a simple syntax.
JavaScript can read as well as HTML components - JavaScript can read and change this content of an HTML element.
JavaScript can be used to verify data -JavaScript can be used to validate form data before submitting data to the server. This prevents the server from processing additional.
Cookies can be used to create JavaScript - JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer.
Java and JavaScript are not the same.
Java and JavaScript have 2 different languages in both consideration and design.
Built by Java Sun Microsystems: an effective and much more complex programming language - in the same category as C and C++.

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2020.04.11 16:37 FozzTexx Contest: Pizza Week through April 19th!

Winners are gcdrm for Piping Hot and Fresh, DenshiKenshi for Party Variety Pack, and gozarc for More Than Plain Pepperoni.

Inspired by several posts in the last few weeks, I present the next RetroBattlestations contest: Pizza Week!
In the early '90s the pizza box form factor became a somewhat popular style of computer case. A pizza box style case appears very thin, flat, and square, looking kind of like a box that might be used for pizza delivery. Unix workstations from Sun and NeXT were some of the earliest examples of the pizza box, with home computer companies jumping in not long after.
At the end of the week one winner will be selected from each of the following categories:
Entries:
Ordinary desktops:
RULES:
Pizza Week is from Apr 11th to Apr 19th. To participate in the contest you need to make a new post to RetroBattlestations of a photo or video that you shot of a computer with a pizza box style form factor. Your entry must include your reddit username and the date together in the photo, either displayed on screen or written on a piece of paper. Make sure your username, the date, and the entire machine are visible. No photos of just a screen and no emulators. Posts that don't meet these criteria will be disqualified and removed. You are welcome to submit multiple entries.
At the end of the week three winners will be selected, one from each category, who will receive their choice of three retro stickers.
Curious about previous contests? Check out the complete list here!
submitted by FozzTexx to retrobattlestations [link] [comments]


2020.02.07 17:39 unab0mber Slack vs Teams vs Workplace: The intriguing dynamics of the work messenger market

Watching new and rapidly changing markets can teach you many things. The work communication market led by companies such as Slack, Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook is something I have been following for a long time.
Last year, before Slack went public, I did an analytical review of the data disclosed in Slack’s S-1 filing. At the end of that review, I shared my opinion that Slack experienced problems in the enterprise segment: the competition from Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook for this market segment threatened Slack’s long-term growth prospects and its $20+ billion valuation.
A lot of things have happened in the eight months that have passed since I published that essay. A lot of new data has surfaced, with one of the biggest market intrigues fading away and a new one appearing. The leading characters once again reminded us of a number of fundamental rules the market plays by. And this is exactly what I am going to talk about in this essay.

The facts about the race between Slack, Microsoft Teams, and Workplace by Facebook

Microsoft Teams was introduced to the market at the very end of 2016, and became available globally at the beginning of 2017. At that time, three-year-old Slack’s DAU already amounted to more than 4M users, which is an impressive number for a young startup in the B2B segment.
By mid-2019, Microsoft Teams took the lead in DAU, and by the end of 2019, Teams had outran Slack with their 20M DAU versus Slack’s 12M (almost double).
It is not only about how fast Teams was able to catch up and then take the lead, but how dramatically the growth rates of the two products differ.
A good proxy of the new users’ dynamics of Slack and Teams is their app download figures. In my experience with Workplace by Facebook (I worked on Workplace by Facebook for a few years, I am not working on it now), the new users of these services either install apps within the first few days or don’t install at all. Therefore, the dynamics of the number of downloads of the apps should correspond to the dynamics of new users coming to the services (mind that this is not entirely true for older products due to the significant effect from the old users downloading apps again when they purchase a new phone).
In 2017, the number of new users downloading Teams and Workplace were fairly comparable. Both of these services were gradually catching up with Slack, but were still lagging far behind in terms of the number of new users (keep in mind that Slack had already had about 4 million DAU at the time its competitors launched).
In 2018-2019, Workplace continued to increase the number of its new users faster than Slack. Currently, Workplace monthly downloads numbers make 35-40% of Slack’s downloads.
In 2018, Microsoft Teams started to leave Workplace well behind and gradually closed its distance with Slack. By the end of 2018, Teams had caught up with Slack, according to the number of downloads per month. Shortly after, it flashed past Slack and left it in the dust. Presently, the Microsoft Teams app gets 2.5 times the downloads that Slack gets. The observed dynamics corresponds to what we saw in the DAU’s chart above.
It is worth noting that, due to the fact that Slack tends to thrive in the technology segment of the market, it is likely that the proportion of users who download Slack’s app is higher than that of Microsoft Teams and Workplace.
Slack’s stock price began to tumble right after going public. You can see the sharp drop in the stock value right after Microsoft announced the DAU numbers for Teams in September of 2019. Now Slack’s valuation has plateaued. It is currently estimated at $12-13B (the value reached $20+ B at the moment of their direct public offering).

How did Microsoft Teams grow so fast: Understanding the importance of controlling distribution channels

What allowed Microsoft Teams to boost growth and outrun Slack in such a short period?
Was it the product dominance? Not really. Instead, it was Microsoft control of distribution channels that delivered the product to its massive customer base.
I have three hypotheses about which growth channels accelerated Microsoft Teams’ growth:
Judging by publicly available data, here is what I think. The main driver behind Microsoft Teams’s growth is the deep integration with Office 365. Most likely, we also observe the early results of the users migrating from Skype for Business to Teams. I suppose we will be able to see a more vivid effect of this process next year.
Let’s discuss each of these hypotheses in detail.

Integration with Office 365

Microsoft products are deeply integrated into the workflow of many companies in the world. The audience form Microsoft Office 365’s main product (a bundle with all the Office products, such as Excel, Word, Powerpoint, etc.) surpassed 200 MAU users by the end of 2019.
Office 365 also includes the ProPlus, a special service that allows tech departments of any organization to install Microsoft services on their employees’ computers, as well as control the frequency with which the individual products within bundles are updated. Some of these products fall into the Monthly Channel (monthly updates), others fall into the Semi-Annual Channel (updated every six months).
In mid-2019, the Teams product was included into the Monthly Channel for the new version of Office 365 ProPlus. This meant that in companies using the new version of ProPlus, Teams would be installed on employees’ computers automatically with the next monthly update.
Microsoft spent a year and a half polishing the Teams product. Once it was good enough, the company began to gradually introduce it to its customer base through its powerful distribution channels.
After hearing about this, Slack representatives were quick to announce that Microsoft Teams overestimated their DAU numbers by including such pre-installed Teams’ clients. But this is not the case. The documentation clearly states that an active user is one who explicitly performed an action such as sending a message, making a call, starting a chat, etc.
“We define DAU as the maximum daily users performing an intentional action in the last 28-day period across the desktop client, mobile client and web client,” said Microsoft Vice President Jared Spataro. “Examples of an intentional action includes starting a chat, placing a call, sharing a file, editing a document within teams, participating in a meeting, etc.”

Migration of users from Skype for Business to Microsoft Teams

Skype for Business corporate chat came to life in 2015, becoming a replacement for its predecessor, the Lync messenger, whose audience exceeded 100M users at the time. The new product combined features from Lync and Microsoft’s recent acquisition, Skype.
On September 25, 2017, Microsoft announced that Teams would at some point replace Skype for Business. Last year, the company saved the date: Skype for Business will no longer be available for new organizations starting from July 31, 2021, which is a year and a half from now. But until this date, the Teams’ product will live completely separately and won’t affect Skype for Business in any way.
Most likely, some organizations have already started the migration, which may impact Teams’ growth rate. However, this process is currently organic, and is not forced by Microsoft at all. Given the end date for Skype for Business, we can expect that the migration process will only build up its speed, and is likely to become the second powerful driver for Teams’ growth next year.
The absence of any forced transfusion of users from Skype for Business to Teams is also evident in the dynamics of mobile app downloads for the products: Teams’ rapid growth hasn’t affected Skype for Business downloads at all.

The launch of Teams free version

In July 2018, Microsoft launched a free limited version of Teams aimed at small and medium-sized businesses. Despite the fact that the launch coincided with the first jump in the number of Teams app installs, I don’t think that the free version was the main driver of their phenomenal growth in 2019.
The main growth channel in the SMB market is word of mouth. I explained in detail how it works in a previous Slack’s review. Despite a growing interest from the market, Teams loses much to Slack in terms of organic interest in the service, fueled by a word of mouth (based on Google Trends). It is also worth noting that the numbers for Microsoft Teams might be underestimated in the graph below, since many users can search for a product by simply typing “teams”. However, it is impossible to distinguish those who are looking for the service from the ones simply using the same word for their query.
I think that Microsoft launched Teams free version outside Office 365 (for Office 365 customers the product was already a free addition to the general bundle of services), in order to simply tick all the boxes and meet the industry’s standard, covering all the potential audience segments. But I don’t believe Microsoft is that much into the SMB segment because it has traditionally drawn most of its value from contracts with large corporate customers. I might be wrong, though.
In Slack’s case, the focus on SMB segment and corporate teams is part of their unique bottom-up growth strategy, a stepping stone toward attracting large companies. This strategy has worked to a degree and some large teams have already started using their product.
But Microsoft already has large corporate customers and it doesn’t make sense for them to use the same tactic to reach customers with whom they have already built a relationship. On the other hand, Microsoft might have wanted to win back the SMB segment, which they had previously lost to Google’s G Suite product.

Slack will continue to grow, but won’t become the market leader

Slack ushered in a new generation of messengers for teamwork. The product quickly proved that it creates significant added value over email and other general purpose messengers (such as Skype), which took over users’ hearts in most tech and media companies.
Slack built an effective growth machine by using their bottom-up model: Using word-of-mouth, the free version of Slack finds a foothold into teams and then starts to grow inside companies (sometimes organically, and sometimes with the help of Slack’s sales team, and sometimes in both ways simultaneously).
These two innovations provided the foundation that allowed Slack to create a new market and become its dominant player in the tech corporate messenger segment.
A similar growth model has also become the foundation of a sustainable business model with a negative revenue churn. This means that older customer cohorts pay more over time. This happens due to Slack’s increasing over-time penetration in organizations where someone has already started using the service, as well as due to these companies’ growth.
The creation of a new product type, the leadership in the tech niche, and most importantly, a growth model that was not dependant on the size of their sales department made it possible for Slack to build a fast-growing multi-billion dollar business and drew the attention and interest of huge investors in Slack as a company.
Yet when the company went public its valuation was mostly based on its future growth potential, particularly in the Enterprise segment ($28B a year, according to the Slack team’s estimates).
Much of Slack’s S-1 filing was dedicated to demonstrating how Slack is successfully expanding into the Enterprise segment and how well the current growth model provides a launch pad for this process. Here’s what the Slack’s team said it in the S-1 filing:
“We offer a self-service approach, for both free and paid subscriptions to Slack, which capitalizes on strong word-of-mouth adoption and customer love for our brand. Since 2016, we have augmented our approach with a direct sales force and customer success professionals who are focused on driving successful adoption and expansion within organizations, whether on a free or paid subscription plan.”

Slack was too slow to conquer the market and had no built-in protection mechanisms

This is where the most interesting things surface.
By the time of its IPO, Slack had a working growth model, but in the six years since its launch, this growth model provided the product with no more than 5-6M paying users. It doesn’t sound too impressive if we compare it to Office 365’s 200M paying users, or Skype for Business (or Lync, if we are talking about way back) with its 100M users.
Slack had a very small market share at the time of their IPO filing, while their main growth potential lay in the Enterprise segment. The key question was whether Slack could transform its growth model and capture the market before Microsoft or Facebook made their move.
Here is what I had to say on the matter eight months ago:
“Microsoft already has access to a lot of large enterprise clients from all verticals and has been selling them products bundled in a single package for a long time. They recently added Microsoft Teams to the Office Suite, which is just as good as Slack in terms of functionality. Does Slack offer enough incentive to convince enterprise customers to forgo the benefits of their long-term relationship with Microsoft? ”
And now at the beginning of 2020, it seems that we have an answer to the above question. Slack, most likely, won’t become the leader of the market it has created:
Slack didn’t give up and tried their best to resist Teams
Slack is increasing its marketing and sales budgets. The company invests a lot in increasing its penetration in companies where teams have already started using their product. To do so, they even offer large companies the offer to pay for 1,000 annual licenses and get the rest of the licenses for free. But all of these measures don’t stand a chance to what Microsoft has up its sleeves.
After announcing last quarter’s results, Slack’s CEO mentioned that the Teams audience is less engaged than Slack’s, which won’t allow Teams to achieve the same effect that Slack has on teams and organizations.
Teams’ audience might not be as engaged as the Slack’s. However, if a company has already switched to Teams, this fact blocks the path for any other direct competitor, in this case Slack, to enter this company. Slack’s added value pushed many users of email and Skype for Business to switch to it. But when comparing Slack to Teams, the differences are not enough to trigger the same effect at the team or company level.
Microsoft was quick enough to notice the startup that began to carve itself a niche in its market by capturing the use cases previously fulfilled by email or Skype for Business. Microsoft decided to create their competitor’s twin and use it to kill Skype for Business and partially Outlook on its own instead of allowing Slack to do it.
This is not the first time Microsoft has played this game. We can think of Internet Explorer vs Netscape, or Lotus/WordPerfect/Harvard Graphics vs Excel/Word/PowerPoint.
The scheme “default + good enough” still works just fine.

New intrigue within the race: Workplace by Facebook and Microsoft Teams fighting for “Firstline Workers”

In January 2019, Microsoft released a product update, where all the new features were aimed at first-line workers (sometimes they are called frontline workers).
First-line workers are employees who are at the forefront and are responsible for communication with clients (e.g., salesmen, waiters, cashiers, delivery, etc.). These people usually belong to the deskless workforce, thus, they do not have their own workplace, computer, etc.
Frontline workers have never been among Microsoft customers before. Most of them don’t even have an email account, since the cost of such an account would have been financially unjustified. Outlook, for example, costs $4-12.5 per month per user.
Such a change in product’s focus can be considered a signal that the Microsoft team is pleased with the results of protecting its borders from Slack’s attack, and is now ready to expand Teams onto the new markets.
And this is where a new intrigue comes into the spotlight. This time it’s between Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook.

Key facts about Workplace by Facebook

Workplace by Facebook was publicly launched in October 2016. In February 2018, Workplace announced they had 2M paid users, and only 8 months later they claimed the figure had grown to 3M.
Workplace is not a direct competitor of Slack or Teams. Workplace serves a much wider function, connecting people from different teams and parts of the organization. Most of these people would have never talked to each other under normal circumstances (for example, employees of different Starbucks coffee shops). It is worth noting that Workplace also has chat for teams, but this is only one of the product’s many features.
Workplace targets large organizations, most of them located outside the tech sector. Its customers include Walmart, Starbucks, AirAsia, and many other large companies.
If you look at Workplace customers, you can see that the product resonated with the companies whose first-line workers are very numerous. Knowing that, the fact that Workplace is choosing to move in this direction from a product point of view can’t be an accident.
“Today we’re announcing new Workplace plans: Workplace Essential, Advanced, Enterprise, and a Frontline add-on. These plans will help organizations to connect frontline workers with the rest of the business, predict costs, and choose the tools they need,” said Facebook vice president Julien Codorniou in a statement in 2019.
In addition to this, Workplace is trying to solve the problem of integrating first-line workers into the company not only from the product’s side, but from the business side as well. They even presented a special tariff for the first-line employees, which is much less expensive than the standard plan: It only costs $1.5 per active user.

Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook’s fight for the first-line workers segment

The first-line market segment is a great opportunity. According to Gallup, today there are 2.7B first-line workers in the world and only 13% of them feel engaged at work.
This market segment has historically been deprived of communication tools, making such employees detached from the company they work at. A product that solves this problem will create a significant added value.
I find the current confrontation in this segment of the company communication tool market very intriguing. The starting line up looks anything but boring.
Microsoft has no clear advantages in this market segment. First, they still need to prove that their current product can create value for first-line workers. Second, their current distribution channels don’t reach first-line workers (they don’t use computers, which means they don’t have Office 365 accounts). Most likely, Microsoft won’t have trouble reaching companies with first-line employees. But once they do, they will have to come up with something new to reach the end users. Third, the battle will take place on the smartphone battleground, not personal computers. And as far as we know, this has never been Microsoft’s forte.
Workplace stands in a more promising position to win this market. Workplace has already shown that its product creates value for first-line workers: their successful case studies include Starbucks, AirAsia, Walmart and some other big names. Workplace also has the advantage of not requiring any workshops to master their product (everyone is already using Facebook anyway, which means that the interfaces and Workplace features will be familiar to its users). Perhaps Workplace’s other advantage is that this market segment is already using Facebook tools to solve its business-related tasks (using Messenger, Whatsapp, Facebook Groups). This is only a hypothesis, but even if it is true, the task of transferring such ad-hoc and unconventional use cases to a new specialized product is yet to be solved.

Summing up

Slack has redefined the business messenger market, has found a unique and working growth model, and has built a decent brand. This was enough to create a multi-billion dollar company, but it wasn’t enough to become the leader of the new market.
Teams, which can be called a free doppelganger of Slack, currently distributed across Microsoft’s client base through well-established distribution channels, has already outrun Slack’s DAU numbers by a factor of two. Next year, the gap is likely to grow.
I think that at this point the battle between Slack and Teams is over. Microsoft has once again reminded us that without strong network effects or other powerful protection mechanisms, control over the distribution channels remains one of the main success factors.
After showing Slack who is the best, Microsoft is off to conquer the first-line workers segment, which has been deprived of any attention from the key tech players for many years. Here, the standoff will be between Teams and Workplace to win a 2.7B user market. Both products currently hold similar positions. I might even say that Workplace may have a slight advantage here. However, both of these companies are just starting to pave the way, so the best drama is yet to come. Stay tuned!
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2020.02.07 17:06 unab0mber Slack vs Teams vs Workplace: The intriguing dynamics of the work messenger market

Watching new and rapidly changing markets can teach you many things. The work communication market led by companies such as Slack, Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook is something I have been following for a long time.
Last year, before Slack went public, I did an analytical review of the data disclosed in Slack’s S-1 filing. At the end of that review, I shared my opinion that Slack experienced problems in the enterprise segment: the competition from Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook for this market segment threatened Slack’s long-term growth prospects and its $20+ billion valuation.
A lot of things have happened in the eight months that have passed since I published that essay. A lot of new data has surfaced, with one of the biggest market intrigues fading away and a new one appearing. The leading characters once again reminded us of a number of fundamental rules the market plays by. And this is exactly what I am going to talk about in this essay.

The facts about the race between Slack, Microsoft Teams, and Workplace by Facebook

Microsoft Teams was introduced to the market at the very end of 2016, and became available globally at the beginning of 2017. At that time, three-year-old Slack’s DAU already amounted to more than 4M users, which is an impressive number for a young startup in the B2B segment.
By mid-2019, Microsoft Teams took the lead in DAU, and by the end of 2019, Teams had outran Slack with their 20M DAU versus Slack’s 12M (almost double).
It is not only about how fast Teams was able to catch up and then take the lead, but how dramatically the growth rates of the two products differ.
A good proxy of the new users’ dynamics of Slack and Teams is their app download figures. In my experience with Workplace by Facebook (I worked on Workplace by Facebook for a few years, I am not working on it now), the new users of these services either install apps within the first few days or don’t install at all. Therefore, the dynamics of the number of downloads of the apps should correspond to the dynamics of new users coming to the services (mind that this is not entirely true for older products due to the significant effect from the old users downloading apps again when they purchase a new phone).
In 2017, the number of new users downloading Teams and Workplace were fairly comparable. Both of these services were gradually catching up with Slack, but were still lagging far behind in terms of the number of new users (keep in mind that Slack had already had about 4 million DAU at the time its competitors launched).
In 2018-2019, Workplace continued to increase the number of its new users faster than Slack. Currently, Workplace monthly downloads numbers make 35-40% of Slack’s downloads.
In 2018, Microsoft Teams started to leave Workplace well behind and gradually closed its distance with Slack. By the end of 2018, Teams had caught up with Slack, according to the number of downloads per month. Shortly after, it flashed past Slack and left it in the dust. Presently, the Microsoft Teams app gets 2.5 times the downloads that Slack gets. The observed dynamics corresponds to what we saw in the DAU’s chart above.
It is worth noting that, due to the fact that Slack tends to thrive in the technology segment of the market, it is likely that the proportion of users who download Slack’s app is higher than that of Microsoft Teams and Workplace.
Slack’s stock price began to tumble right after going public. You can see the sharp drop in the stock value right after Microsoft announced the DAU numbers for Teams in September of 2019. Now Slack’s valuation has plateaued. It is currently estimated at $12-13B (the value reached $20+ B at the moment of their direct public offering).

How did Microsoft Teams grow so fast: Understanding the importance of controlling distribution channels

What allowed Microsoft Teams to boost growth and outrun Slack in such a short period?
Was it the product dominance? Not really. Instead, it was Microsoft control of distribution channels that delivered the product to its massive customer base.
I have three hypotheses about which growth channels accelerated Microsoft Teams’ growth:
Judging by publicly available data, here is what I think. The main driver behind Microsoft Teams’s growth is the deep integration with Office 365. Most likely, we also observe the early results of the users migrating from Skype for Business to Teams. I suppose we will be able to see a more vivid effect of this process next year.
Let’s discuss each of these hypotheses in detail.

Integration with Office 365

Microsoft products are deeply integrated into the workflow of many companies in the world. The audience form Microsoft Office 365’s main product (a bundle with all the Office products, such as Excel, Word, Powerpoint, etc.) surpassed 200 MAU users by the end of 2019.
Office 365 also includes the ProPlus, a special service that allows tech departments of any organization to install Microsoft services on their employees’ computers, as well as control the frequency with which the individual products within bundles are updated. Some of these products fall into the Monthly Channel (monthly updates), others fall into the Semi-Annual Channel (updated every six months).
In mid-2019, the Teams product was included into the Monthly Channel for the new version of Office 365 ProPlus. This meant that in companies using the new version of ProPlus, Teams would be installed on employees’ computers automatically with the next monthly update.
Microsoft spent a year and a half polishing the Teams product. Once it was good enough, the company began to gradually introduce it to its customer base through its powerful distribution channels.
After hearing about this, Slack representatives were quick to announce that Microsoft Teams overestimated their DAU numbers by including such pre-installed Teams’ clients. But this is not the case. The documentation clearly states that an active user is one who explicitly performed an action such as sending a message, making a call, starting a chat, etc.
“We define DAU as the maximum daily users performing an intentional action in the last 28-day period across the desktop client, mobile client and web client,” said Microsoft Vice President Jared Spataro. “Examples of an intentional action includes starting a chat, placing a call, sharing a file, editing a document within teams, participating in a meeting, etc.”

Migration of users from Skype for Business to Microsoft Teams

Skype for Business corporate chat came to life in 2015, becoming a replacement for its predecessor, the Lync messenger, whose audience exceeded 100M users at the time. The new product combined features from Lync and Microsoft’s recent acquisition, Skype.
On September 25, 2017, Microsoft announced that Teams would at some point replace Skype for Business. Last year, the company saved the date: Skype for Business will no longer be available for new organizations starting from July 31, 2021, which is a year and a half from now. But until this date, the Teams’ product will live completely separately and won’t affect Skype for Business in any way.
Most likely, some organizations have already started the migration, which may impact Teams’ growth rate. However, this process is currently organic, and is not forced by Microsoft at all. Given the end date for Skype for Business, we can expect that the migration process will only build up its speed, and is likely to become the second powerful driver for Teams’ growth next year.
The absence of any forced transfusion of users from Skype for Business to Teams is also evident in the dynamics of mobile app downloads for the products: Teams’ rapid growth hasn’t affected Skype for Business downloads at all.

The launch of Teams free version

In July 2018, Microsoft launched a free limited version of Teams aimed at small and medium-sized businesses. Despite the fact that the launch coincided with the first jump in the number of Teams app installs, I don’t think that the free version was the main driver of their phenomenal growth in 2019.
The main growth channel in the SMB market is word of mouth. I explained in detail how it works in a previous Slack’s review. Despite a growing interest from the market, Teams loses much to Slack in terms of organic interest in the service, fueled by a word of mouth (based on Google Trends). It is also worth noting that the numbers for Microsoft Teams might be underestimated in the graph below, since many users can search for a product by simply typing “teams”. However, it is impossible to distinguish those who are looking for the service from the ones simply using the same word for their query.
I think that Microsoft launched Teams free version outside Office 365 (for Office 365 customers the product was already a free addition to the general bundle of services), in order to simply tick all the boxes and meet the industry’s standard, covering all the potential audience segments. But I don’t believe Microsoft is that much into the SMB segment because it has traditionally drawn most of its value from contracts with large corporate customers. I might be wrong, though.
In Slack’s case, the focus on SMB segment and corporate teams is part of their unique bottom-up growth strategy, a stepping stone toward attracting large companies. This strategy has worked to a degree and some large teams have already started using their product.
But Microsoft already has large corporate customers and it doesn’t make sense for them to use the same tactic to reach customers with whom they have already built a relationship. On the other hand, Microsoft might have wanted to win back the SMB segment, which they had previously lost to Google’s G Suite product.

Slack will continue to grow, but won’t become the market leader

Slack ushered in a new generation of messengers for teamwork. The product quickly proved that it creates significant added value over email and other general purpose messengers (such as Skype), which took over users’ hearts in most tech and media companies.
Slack built an effective growth machine by using their bottom-up model: Using word-of-mouth, the free version of Slack finds a foothold into teams and then starts to grow inside companies (sometimes organically, and sometimes with the help of Slack’s sales team, and sometimes in both ways simultaneously).
These two innovations provided the foundation that allowed Slack to create a new market and become its dominant player in the tech corporate messenger segment.
A similar growth model has also become the foundation of a sustainable business model with a negative revenue churn. This means that older customer cohorts pay more over time. This happens due to Slack’s increasing over-time penetration in organizations where someone has already started using the service, as well as due to these companies’ growth.
The creation of a new product type, the leadership in the tech niche, and most importantly, a growth model that was not dependant on the size of their sales department made it possible for Slack to build a fast-growing multi-billion dollar business and drew the attention and interest of huge investors in Slack as a company.
Yet when the company went public its valuation was mostly based on its future growth potential, particularly in the Enterprise segment ($28B a year, according to the Slack team’s estimates).
Much of Slack’s S-1 filing was dedicated to demonstrating how Slack is successfully expanding into the Enterprise segment and how well the current growth model provides a launch pad for this process. Here’s what the Slack’s team said it in the S-1 filing:
“We offer a self-service approach, for both free and paid subscriptions to Slack, which capitalizes on strong word-of-mouth adoption and customer love for our brand. Since 2016, we have augmented our approach with a direct sales force and customer success professionals who are focused on driving successful adoption and expansion within organizations, whether on a free or paid subscription plan.”

Slack was too slow to conquer the market and had no built-in protection mechanisms

This is where the most interesting things surface.
By the time of its IPO, Slack had a working growth model, but in the six years since its launch, this growth model provided the product with no more than 5-6M paying users. It doesn’t sound too impressive if we compare it to Office 365’s 200M paying users, or Skype for Business (or Lync, if we are talking about way back) with its 100M users.
Slack had a very small market share at the time of their IPO filing, while their main growth potential lay in the Enterprise segment. The key question was whether Slack could transform its growth model and capture the market before Microsoft or Facebook made their move.
Here is what I had to say on the matter eight months ago:
“Microsoft already has access to a lot of large enterprise clients from all verticals and has been selling them products bundled in a single package for a long time. They recently added Microsoft Teams to the Office Suite, which is just as good as Slack in terms of functionality. Does Slack offer enough incentive to convince enterprise customers to forgo the benefits of their long-term relationship with Microsoft? ”
And now at the beginning of 2020, it seems that we have an answer to the above question. Slack, most likely, won’t become the leader of the market it has created:
Slack didn’t give up and tried their best to resist Teams
Slack is increasing its marketing and sales budgets. The company invests a lot in increasing its penetration in companies where teams have already started using their product. To do so, they even offer large companies the offer to pay for 1,000 annual licenses and get the rest of the licenses for free. But all of these measures don’t stand a chance to what Microsoft has up its sleeves.
After announcing last quarter’s results, Slack’s CEO mentioned that the Teams audience is less engaged than Slack’s, which won’t allow Teams to achieve the same effect that Slack has on teams and organizations.
Teams’ audience might not be as engaged as the Slack’s. However, if a company has already switched to Teams, this fact blocks the path for any other direct competitor, in this case Slack, to enter this company. Slack’s added value pushed many users of email and Skype for Business to switch to it. But when comparing Slack to Teams, the differences are not enough to trigger the same effect at the team or company level.
Microsoft was quick enough to notice the startup that began to carve itself a niche in its market by capturing the use cases previously fulfilled by email or Skype for Business. Microsoft decided to create their competitor’s twin and use it to kill Skype for Business and partially Outlook on its own instead of allowing Slack to do it.
This is not the first time Microsoft has played this game. We can think of Internet Explorer vs Netscape, or Lotus/WordPerfect/Harvard Graphics vs Excel/Word/PowerPoint.
The scheme “default + good enough” still works just fine.

New intrigue within the race: Workplace by Facebook and Microsoft Teams fighting for “Firstline Workers”

In January 2019, Microsoft released a product update, where all the new features were aimed at first-line workers (sometimes they are called frontline workers).
First-line workers are employees who are at the forefront and are responsible for communication with clients (e.g., salesmen, waiters, cashiers, delivery, etc.). These people usually belong to the deskless workforce, thus, they do not have their own workplace, computer, etc.
Frontline workers have never been among Microsoft customers before. Most of them don’t even have an email account, since the cost of such an account would have been financially unjustified. Outlook, for example, costs $4-12.5 per month per user.
Such a change in product’s focus can be considered a signal that the Microsoft team is pleased with the results of protecting its borders from Slack’s attack, and is now ready to expand Teams onto the new markets.
And this is where a new intrigue comes into the spotlight. This time it’s between Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook.

Key facts about Workplace by Facebook

Workplace by Facebook was publicly launched in October 2016. In February 2018, Workplace announced they had 2M paid users, and only 8 months later they claimed the figure had grown to 3M.
Workplace is not a direct competitor of Slack or Teams. Workplace serves a much wider function, connecting people from different teams and parts of the organization. Most of these people would have never talked to each other under normal circumstances (for example, employees of different Starbucks coffee shops). It is worth noting that Workplace also has chat for teams, but this is only one of the product’s many features.
Workplace targets large organizations, most of them located outside the tech sector. Its customers include Walmart, Starbucks, AirAsia, and many other large companies.
If you look at Workplace customers, you can see that the product resonated with the companies whose first-line workers are very numerous. Knowing that, the fact that Workplace is choosing to move in this direction from a product point of view can’t be an accident.
“Today we’re announcing new Workplace plans: Workplace Essential, Advanced, Enterprise, and a Frontline add-on. These plans will help organizations to connect frontline workers with the rest of the business, predict costs, and choose the tools they need,” said Facebook vice president Julien Codorniou in a statement in 2019.
In addition to this, Workplace is trying to solve the problem of integrating first-line workers into the company not only from the product’s side, but from the business side as well. They even presented a special tariff for the first-line employees, which is much less expensive than the standard plan: It only costs $1.5 per active user.

Microsoft Teams and Workplace by Facebook’s fight for the first-line workers segment

The first-line market segment is a great opportunity. According to Gallup, today there are 2.7B first-line workers in the world and only 13% of them feel engaged at work.
This market segment has historically been deprived of communication tools, making such employees detached from the company they work at. A product that solves this problem will create a significant added value.
I find the current confrontation in this segment of the company communication tool market very intriguing. The starting line up looks anything but boring.
Microsoft has no clear advantages in this market segment. First, they still need to prove that their current product can create value for first-line workers. Second, their current distribution channels don’t reach first-line workers (they don’t use computers, which means they don’t have Office 365 accounts). Most likely, Microsoft won’t have trouble reaching companies with first-line employees. But once they do, they will have to come up with something new to reach the end users. Third, the battle will take place on the smartphone battleground, not personal computers. And as far as we know, this has never been Microsoft’s forte.
Workplace stands in a more promising position to win this market. Workplace has already shown that its product creates value for first-line workers: their successful case studies include Starbucks, AirAsia, Walmart and some other big names. Workplace also has the advantage of not requiring any workshops to master their product (everyone is already using Facebook anyway, which means that the interfaces and Workplace features will be familiar to its users). Perhaps Workplace’s other advantage is that this market segment is already using Facebook tools to solve its business-related tasks (using Messenger, Whatsapp, Facebook Groups). This is only a hypothesis, but even if it is true, the task of transferring such ad-hoc and unconventional use cases to a new specialized product is yet to be solved.

Summing up

Slack has redefined the business messenger market, has found a unique and working growth model, and has built a decent brand. This was enough to create a multi-billion dollar company, but it wasn’t enough to become the leader of the new market.
Teams, which can be called a free doppelganger of Slack, currently distributed across Microsoft’s client base through well-established distribution channels, has already outrun Slack’s DAU numbers by a factor of two. Next year, the gap is likely to grow.
I think that at this point the battle between Slack and Teams is over. Microsoft has once again reminded us that without strong network effects or other powerful protection mechanisms, control over the distribution channels remains one of the main success factors.
After showing Slack who is the best, Microsoft is off to conquer the first-line workers segment, which has been deprived of any attention from the key tech players for many years. Here, the standoff will be between Teams and Workplace to win a 2.7B user market. Both products currently hold similar positions. I might even say that Workplace may have a slight advantage here. However, both of these companies are just starting to pave the way, so the best drama is yet to come. Stay tuned!
submitted by unab0mber to Entrepreneur [link] [comments]


2020.02.06 19:25 thrw2534122019 On Netscape Moments and the Journey to Hawaii

Disclaimer: I'm an online rando, not a licensed financial advisor. DYODD. This is an update to a post from six months ago.
The mood feels frothier than it's been for some time.
Our community has been buoyed by a maelstrom of DeFi activity, progress on Ethereum's economic policies, a path to 2.0 which seems less meandering than ever before and, let's not be shy about this, a few weeks of solidly green cucumbers.
It's lovely, overdue & well-deserved.
Between the memes & generally festive dailies, I like to hit pause, zoom out and offer some reflections on where un-permissioned blockchain--and Ethereum, as the most successful to date implementation thereof--is.
The web took a long time to grow up.
1980 through 1990: Invention, experimentation & backbone. MUDs & BBSs dominated. In 1990, a version of HTML that can be approximately called "usable" becomes available.
1990 through 1994: Early adoption, basic protocols & functionality. The first real web browser, Mosaic, launches. Significant web presence from universities, research institutions and large media entities or businesses. "Online for dummies" portals like AOL, Compuserve & Prodigy become common-place. Bryant Gumbel's infamous "What is Internet, anyway" moment turns out to be a seminal point of inflection for popular perception of web use & the utility of being online.
1994 through 1998: Consolidation, increased adoption, commercialization, disruption. Home & workplace use, ISPs & online purchases all show exponential growth. People joke around water coolers about using AOL trial CDs as coasters. Netscape makes web browsing more intuitive & integrates protocols (http, ftp, gopher, usenet, smtp/pop) into a single program, removing most of the friction involved in casual daily use. "You've got mail" segues from niche nerd activity into pop culture phenom. Edge technologies like peer-to-peer sharing become existential threats to decade-old business models, with significant legal and political implications. Online presence becomes mandatory for most businesses. Future giants like Google, Amazon & Ebay/PayPal explore & expand new ways of monetizing online space.
1998 through 2003: Commoditization, dot.com boom & bust cycle. Large proliferation of risky or poorly thought-out ventures, violent subsequent contraction. Pets.com happens a thousand times over. Teens begin to tune into proto-social media: Friendster, Hotornot, ICQ/Aim, Myspace, Xanga. Popular culture becomes permeated by all things Internet, with signs of exhaustion due to overexposure. Through peaks & valleys, Fortune 100 players, old & new, scramble to firm up their respective beach-heads into cyberspace, praise be upon our once & future prophet, William Gibson.
2003 through 2007: Ubiquity. Internet is now an inextricable part of the desktop experience. Venture capital is in a perpetual arms race to fund "Web 2.0," a more accessible, secure & well-integrated way of experiencing online activity. Network advantages displace also-rans, with Google, Amazon and Facebook increasingly dominating "mind-share." Internationally, online conglomerates graduate into billion-dollar businesses. New business models crop up online. YouTube, 4chan, SomethingAwful, DeviantArt, Tumblr are now foundational growing up experiences for millions of teens.
2007 through present: Ubiquity, cubed. Internet becomes hyper-accessible & necessary to key aspects of contemporary life. Law, medicine, finance and governance become dependent, to a large degree, on online activity. With smart phones available for price points below $30, a significant majority of human beings on the planet can interact with the most powerful & immediate way of accessing information we've ever built on a mass scale. Content consumption and creation explodes. Instant messaging, video-conferencing, geo-location sevices & flexible payment models become trivial aspects of every-day life.
That's three decades for the Internet & its main interface, the web, to reach maturity.
Blockchain was initially parameterized in 1991.
Bitcoin began in 2008.
Ethereum was proposed in 2013.
If we compare blockchain in general & Ethereum in particular to the development and eventual domination of the Internet, we're barely making headway through the second phase: early adoption, basic protocols & functionality.
My first point:
It's early on in the journey.
In some ways, blockchain & Ethereum are like the Internet, in that they represent transformative technologies.
In some ways, blockchain & Ethereum are unlike the Internet.
Thin protocols like http, ftp, email, etc, move data around. Value is captured by entities which acquire data and transact it: Google, Amazon, Ebay, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter.
Fat protocols like blockchains both move data around AND store it. Value is captured in the protocol itself.
My second point:
Based on objective data such as network use and development activity, Ethereum is the clear front-runner when it comes to public, un-permissioned blockchains.
We remain in the "overestimating early adoption/change" phase of blockchain & cyrpto-currency. Multiple projects in the top 25 by marketcap metric are of dubious technical & financial value. Some exchanges engage in market-distorting practices. Fraudulent "personalities" in the space still command significant attention. There's material risk to involvement in the early stages of any venture, blockchain & Ethereum included.
But: The flip to "overestimating early adoption/change" is "underestimating long term adoption/change."
And here is where I'd like to draw attention to the title of this post:
Netscape moments.
  • On the browser side, Brave has removed most of the complexity in privacy and blockchain-based, fairly distributed incentives. The growth is astounding & shows no sign of relenting. When Bill Burr does ad reads, it's safe to say that we're no longer looking at an obscure or arcane product.
  • On the wallet side, Argent has abstracted, as ethical-trade well put it,"most of the complexity that currently slows down onboarding on Ethereum and defi." Early response seems to have been overwhelming.
Netscape represented a dramatic turning point in Internet & web growth precisely because it consolidated and simplified a large number of complex and powerful technologies.
My third point:
We could be witnessing a number of similar flash-points which will be in retrospect acknowledged as fundamental pivots to parabolic growth--and they're happening on Ethereum.
A summary:
  • It's early on in the journey.
  • Based on objective data such as network use and development activity, Ethereum is the run-away front-runner when it comes to public, un-permissioned blockchains.
  • We seem to be witnessing parabolic growth "Netscape moments," and they're happening on Ethereum.
If 2020 is to crypto what 1994 was to the Internet, we can barely imagine the degree to which the world will run on blockchain in 2030.
If you're reading this, you're part of the 0.001% smart or lucky enough to understand what future is being built on, the same way that my father knew how the Internet will shape these last three decades.
You have a one-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Things like the BTC/ETH ratio & 35% fiat valuation drops or rises represent trivial noise in a broader landscape defined by tectonic realignments in technology, finance and politics.
I have a single question on those who have read this far:
On what kind of a time scale are you a bull on, and what are you doing about it?
I know what my answer is.
I wish all of you, /ethfinance brothers & sisters, good fortune and good health through the promise of these beautiful days to come.
submitted by thrw2534122019 to ethfinance [link] [comments]


2019.11.03 02:13 oxguy3 My automatic NYT crossword downloading script

I don't know if anyone is interested, but I built myself a little script to automatically download the Across Lite file for the daily NYT crossword, and figured I'd share it. Fair warning: this requires some technical knowhow to set up, and that goes triple if you're trying to do it on Windows.
On my machine, I chose to install this in /opt/nytcrossword. Here's the main script (/opt/nytcrossword/today.sh):
#!/usbin/env bash cookies=/opt/nytcrossword/cookies.txt dest=~/nytcrossword/`date +%Y`/ puzzid=`curl -b "$cookies" "https://nyt-games-prd.appspot.com/svc/crosswords/v3/36569100/puzzles.json?publish_type=daily&sort_order=asc&sort_by=print_date&limit=1" jq '.results[0].puzzle_id'` mkdir -p "$dest" cd "$dest" curl -b "$cookies" -OJ "https://www.nytimes.com/svc/crosswords/v2/puzzle/$puzzid.puz" 
You'll want to change the dest variable to wherever you want your crossword files saved.
This requires that you have curl and jq installed. If you're on a Linux/Mac, you can probably get these with your package manager; e.g. sudo apt install curl jq, brew install curl jq, etc. If you're on Windows... you can jq from their website and probably curl via Cygwin?? No clue; good luck (you're also gonna need to get bash and cron, probably via Cygwin, since Windows doesn't have those either).
You'll also need to login to nytimes.com in your web browser, and then copy your cookies into /opt/nytcrossword/cookies.txt in Netscape cookie format. I use this Chrome extension to easily retrieve my cookies.txt file. (If you use Firefox, this plugin looks like it does the same thing.)
Now, running today.sh manually will download today's crossword, but to get it to automatically run every day, we'll need a cron job. Run crontab -e and add this line to the bottom of your cron file:
20 23 * * * /opt/nytcrossword/today.sh 
That runs the script every day at 11:20pm – you can adjust the numbers to change the time.
Whew, that was complicated. Maybe at some point I'll make a tool for this instead of a hastily-assembled script. Hope someone finds this useful!
submitted by oxguy3 to crossword [link] [comments]


2019.10.08 06:36 Krogs322 Going through old dead blogs on the internet

I found my old, old computer from back in the mid 2000s. Still had Windows XP installed, still had Netscape trying to connect to the internet. The browser had a bunch of old links I made over a decade ago, and most of them are (of course) dead. But some of them connected, and I found a graveyard of blogs. Old blogs from old blog sites that nobody even uses anymore. Websites with animate gifs of fire, nested menus, and rotating red anarchy symbols. "Sign my guestbook!" and a ticker at the bottom counting up with each visitor to the page. "This page was last altered February 2004". I have no idea what any of these individuals are even doing any more. I don't know if they're alive, if they're dead, if they suddenly lost interest, if they had to move and never got around to updating, or if they even remember making these blogs.
Do you ever wonder what these people are up to? An every-day blog that stops updating for no reason in March of 2007. A writing forum that has nothing but dead links to defunct hosting sites that people used to post their creative stories; 15 active members, but nobody has updated since 2003. A weight-loss blog where the last post is something to the effect of "I'm struggling and feel little hope", and then nothing; no update since 2015. Or my favourite: "Sorry for the lack of updates, guys. I had a bunch of real-life stuff going on, but I'm back! The next chapter of my story is nearly done, and I have a bunch of great ideas lined up for the rest of the story! I promise I'll have something posted next week, alright?" Date posted: Nov 21, 2013.
It feels like I'm walking through empty cities filled with photographs of the people who used to live there. These people's presence disappears with no warning and no reason is ever given (unless they come back from a 5 year hiatus and promise to be more active; that post was made 3 years ago, and they're gone again). It's a snapshot of a stranger's life. Someone whose experiences are just as meaningful to them as yours are to you, and you have a brief window where you get to learn all the things about them that they care to share about themselves. For a brief instant, you know them. But they're gone. It's a long-winded tombstone, and the date of death is anywhere between 5 and 20 years ago. The little snapshot gives no indication that it's going to suddenly and unexpectedly end. A profile picture of a smiling mug, taken special to post on that website. The last post they make often has no hint that the writer knows that it'll be the last time they make a post. It's like looking at photos of your dead grandparents when they're kids, and they're smiling and young and have no idea that they're not alive anymore.
These old, abandoned blogs are just ghosts that don't know that they're dead, and it makes me feel incredibly alone. It's a dumb thing to make someone feel both nostalgic and sad, but here it is. It's past 11 right now, and I don't know how I'm going to fall asleep tonight.
submitted by Krogs322 to sad [link] [comments]


2019.10.03 06:42 kcallis Issue with urlview and neomutt

I have been running neomutt under Luke Smith's mutt-wizard for nearly a year with no problems. One of the features that I have enjoyed is pressing V on the index page and automatically open a URL on firefox. Recently, I had some issues with Luke Smith's LARBS and was able to update that finally. The problem is with neomutt and handling attachements.
As stated before, when I pressed v on a message, I would see the option to open the URL and it would open in firefox. After the change to setup LARBS, now when I attempt to use v to open a URL, instead of opening in firefox, the URL opens of calibre which I assume tries to either render the html or convert it into an epub file.
Although some of the LARBS files have changed, nothing has changed on the mutt side. I have looked at the .urlview file and have checked it across the board:
```bash

Urlview configuration file.

man urlview

Put this file in: $HOME/.urlview

Put url_handler.sh in: /usbin

You can call 'urlview' while in 'mutt' by pressing the Ctrl b keys.

Put these macros in your $HOME/.muttrc file.

macro index \cb urlview\n

macro pager \cb urlview\n

You can call 'urlview' while in 'tin' by pressing then a for article,

put urlview as the pipe command.

Regular expression to use to match URLs.

REGEXP (((httphttpsftpgopher)mailto):(//)?[^ >"\t]*www.[-a-z0-9.]+)[^ .,;\t>">):]

REGEXP (((httphttpsftpgopher)mailto)[.:][^ >"\t]*www.[-a-z0-9.]+)[^ .,;\t>">):]

Command to invoke for selected URL. Use lynx, netscape, or url_handler.sh

shell script. Alternatively, you can leave COMMAND unset and set the BROWSER

environment variable instead.

COMMAND lynx %s

COMMAND netscape -remote 'openURL(%s)'

COMMAND url_handler.sh

COMMAND linkhandler

Quit urlview after launch

QUITONLAUNCH

``` and even checked the linkhandler file:
```bash

!/usbin/env sh

Feed script a url or file location.

If an image, it will view in sxiv,

if a video or gif, it will view in mpv

if a music file or pdf, it will download,

otherwise it opens link in browser.

If no url given. Opens browser. For using script as $BROWSER.

[ -z "$1" ] && { "$BROWSER"; exit; }
case "$1" in mkvwebmmp4youtube.com/watchyoutube.com/playlistyoutu.behooktube.combitchute.com) setsid mpv --input-ipc-server=/tmp/mpvsoc$(date +%s) -quiet "$1" >/dev/null 2>&1 & ;; *pngjpgjpejpeggif) curl -sL "$1" > "/tmp/$(echo "$1" sed "s/.///")" && sxiv -a "/tmp/$(echo "$1" sed "s/.///")" >/dev/null 2>&1 & ;; *mp3flacopusmp3?source*) setsid tsp curl -LO "$1" >/dev/null 2>&1 & ;; *) if [ -f "$1" ]; then "$TERMINAL" -e "$EDITOR $1" else setsid "$BROWSER" "$1" >/dev/null 2>&1 & fi ;; esac ```
So I am at a loss. If any one is using LARBS and mutt-wizard, see if there is someone that give me some pointers.
submitted by kcallis to commandline [link] [comments]


2019.07.14 02:37 shadowstar36 Would Java be a good language to build an rpg like a rogue like or title based game?

I used to dabble in Java. I have a few books, thinking in Java and a few college course books for when I took cs 1 and 2 in college. I wound up not going down that route and doing web design and then desktop support. Back then Java j2se 1.5 just released and eclipse was new.
I remember all the books basically taught applets, which even then seemed like ancient tech. Why was a book from 2004/5 going over Netscape navigator. They brought up swing but it was usually a small little bit at the end. The same issue I had when trying to learn c++ all the books I got seemed outdated. It was all console commands and nothing with windows or gui.
I tried making a title based rogue like year's ago but did it learning c++, but real life and marriage etc got in the way and I dropped it. I got to the point of using a ascii graphic api libtcod, I had my character moving around in a static map, and events to open doors and a few enemies on screen.
I'm 40 and have more time and want to learn again for fun and to maybe go back into it professionally, if at all possible. I figured doing a rpg project would be the best route to see if I want to do it.
Last time I checked there wasn't much, except for j2me flip phone games, but now with Android is there more general gaming libraries/apis or is it just all web apps and server side code frameworks for Java. I know the bank I worked for had tons of custom Java swing gui apps but again they all seemed so old school, and you had to use old Java versions that are all out of date. Hell they are still probably required to keep jre 1.6 installed.
Does Java have good documented libraries and books available for learning game and gui, events etc now. I don't mean basic console commands and language fundamentals I have a stack of resources for that.
submitted by shadowstar36 to java [link] [comments]


2019.07.08 21:12 ddk4x5 Mac software to create a low tech photosite, does it still exist? I miss Netscape!

I need to update my site. My provider does not allow php. I know, old. I had that site since 1994, so I rather not move it. I gave up with cms's with databases, after my database got hacked by script kiddies a lot. Also, I hate wordpress. I have been using grey matter, p-machine, etc, but I want something that is photo based rather than date based.
And also, low tech fit's me. I want to make a site that allows to browse photos, each photo should have a caption underneath it. I just want to be able to add photos to an existing set. Also, I want as little as design as possible. Just links at the top, text at the bottom, click on the pic for the next one. Resizing the pic to to fit in the window would be a nice extra.
I used to use Netscape for this, and would then go into the html to fine tune.
Is there some software that runs on a mac that allows me to make such a low tech site?
submitted by ddk4x5 to webdev [link] [comments]


2019.05.09 07:41 saqsham The Bastard Operator From Hell excuses

clock speed
solar flares
electromagnetic radiation from satellite debris
static from nylon underwear
static from plastic slide rules
global warming
poor power conditioning
static buildup
doppler effect
hardware stress fractures
magnetic interference from money/credit cards
dry joints on cable plug
we're waiting for [the phone company] to fix that line
sounds like a Windows problem, try calling Microsoft support
temporary routing anomaly
somebody was calculating pi on the server
fat electrons in the lines
excess surge protection
floating point processor overflow
divide-by-zero error
POSIX compliance problem
monitor resolution too high
improperly oriented keyboard
network packets travelling uphill (use a carrier pigeon)
Decreasing electron flux
first Saturday after first full moon in Winter
radiosity depletion
CPU radiator broken
It works the way the Wang did, what's the problem
positron router malfunction
cellular telephone interference
techtonic stress
piezo-electric interference
(l)user error
working as designed
dynamic software linking table corrupted
heavy gravity fluctuation, move computer to floor rapidly
secretary plugged hairdryer into UPS
terrorist activities
not enough memory, go get system upgrade
interrupt configuration error
spaghetti cable cause packet failure
boss forgot system password
bank holiday - system operating credits not recharged
virus attack, luser responsible
waste water tank overflowed onto computer
Complete Transient Lockout
bad ether in the cables
Bogon emissions
Change in Earth's rotational speed
Cosmic ray particles crashed through the hard disk platter
Smell from unhygienic janitorial staff wrecked the tape heads
Little hamster in running wheel had coronary; waiting for replacement to be Fedexed from Wyoming
Evil dogs hypnotised the night shift
Plumber mistook routing panel for decorative wall fixture
Electricians made popcorn in the power supply
Groundskeepers stole the root password
high pressure system failure
failed trials, system needs redesigned
system has been recalled
not approved by the FCC
need to wrap system in aluminum foil to fix problem
not properly grounded, please bury computer
CPU needs recalibration
system needs to be rebooted
bit bucket overflow
descramble code needed from software company
only available on a need to know basis
knot in cables caused data stream to become twisted and kinked
nesting roaches shorted out the ether cable
The file system is full of it
Satan did it
Daemons did it
You're out of memory
There isn't any problem
Unoptimized hard drive
Typo in the code
Yes, yes, its called a design limitation
Look, buddy: Windows 3.1 IS A General Protection Fault.
That's a great computer you have there; have you considered how it would work as a BSD machine?
Please excuse me, I have to circuit an AC line through my head to get this database working.
Yeah, yo mama dresses you funny and you need a mouse to delete files.
Support staff hung over, send aspirin and come back LATER.
Someone is standing on the ethernet cable, causing a kink in the cable
Windows 95 undocumented "feature"
Runt packets
Password is too complex to decrypt
Boss' kid fucked up the machine
Electromagnetic energy loss
Budget cuts
Mouse chewed through power cable
Stale file handle (next time use Tupperware(tm)!)
Feature not yet implemented
Internet outage
Pentium FDIV bug
Vendor no longer supports the product
Small animal kamikaze attack on power supplies
The vendor put the bug there.
SIMM crosstalk.
IRQ dropout
Collapsed Backbone
Power company testing new voltage spike (creation) equipment
operators on strike due to broken coffee machine
backup tape overwritten with copy of system manager's favourite CD
UPS interrupted the server's power
The electrician didn't know what the yellow cable was so he yanked the ethernet out.
The keyboard isn't plugged in
The air conditioning water supply pipe ruptured over the machine room
The electricity substation in the car park blew up.
The rolling stones concert down the road caused a brown out
The salesman drove over the CPU board.
The monitor is plugged into the serial port
Root nameservers are out of sync
electro-magnetic pulses from French above ground nuke testing.
your keyboard's space bar is generating spurious keycodes.
the real ttys became pseudo ttys and vice-versa.
the printer thinks its a router.
the router thinks its a printer.
evil hackers from Serbia.
we just switched to FDDI.
halon system went off and killed the operators.
because Bill Gates is a Jehovah's witness and so nothing can work on St. Swithin's day.
user to computer ratio too high.
user to computer ration too low.
we just switched to Sprint.
it has Intel Inside
Sticky bits on disk.
Power Company having EMP problems with their reactor
The ring needs another token
new management
telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused
SCSI Chain overterminated
It's not plugged in.
because of network lag due to too many people playing deathmatch
You put the disk in upside down.
Daemons loose in system.
User was distributing pornography on server; system seized by FBI.
BNC (brain not connected)
UBNC (user brain not connected)
LBNC (luser brain not connected)
disks spinning backwards - toggle the hemisphere jumper.
new guy cross-connected phone lines with ac power bus.
had to use hammer to free stuck disk drive heads.
Too few computrons available.
Flat tire on station wagon with tapes. ("Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon full of tapes hurling down the highway" Andrew S. Tannenbaum)
Communications satellite used by the military for star wars.
Party-bug in the Aloha protocol.
Insert coin for new game
Dew on the telephone lines.
Arcserve crashed the server again.
Some one needed the powerstrip, so they pulled the switch plug.
My pony-tail hit the on/off switch on the power strip.
Big to little endian conversion error
You can tune a file system, but you can't tune a fish (from most tunefs man pages)
Dumb terminal
Zombie processes haunting the computer
Incorrect time synchronization
Defunct processes
Stubborn processes
non-redundant fan failure
monitor VLF leakage
bugs in the RAID
no "any" key on keyboard
root rot
Backbone Scoliosis
/pub/lunch
excessive collisions & not enough packet ambulances
le0: no carrier: transceiver cable problem?
broadcast packets on wrong frequency
popper unable to process jumbo kernel
NOTICE: alloc: /dev/null: filesystem full
pseudo-user on a pseudo-terminal
Recursive traversal of loopback mount points
Backbone adjustment
OS swapped to disk
vapors from evaporating sticky-note adhesives
sticktion
short leg on process table
multicasts on broken packets
ether leak
Atilla the Hub
endothermal recalibration
filesystem not big enough for Jumbo Kernel Patch
loop found in loop in redundant loopback
system consumed all the paper for paging
permission denied
Reformatting Page. Wait...
..disk or the processor is on fire.
SCSI's too wide.
Proprietary Information.
Just type 'mv * /dev/null'.
runaway cat on system.
Did you pay the new Support Fee?
We only support a 1200 bps connection.
We only support a 28000 bps connection.
Me no internet, only janitor, me just wax floors.
I'm sorry a pentium won't do, you need an SGI to connect with us.
Post-it Note Sludge leaked into the monitor.
the curls in your keyboard cord are losing electricity.
The monitor needs another box of pixels.
RPC_PMAP_FAILURE
kernel panic: write-only-memory (/dev/wom0) capacity exceeded.
Write-only-memory subsystem too slow for this machine. Contact your local dealer.
Just pick up the phone and give modem connect sounds. "Well you said we should get more lines so we don't have voice lines."
Quantum dynamics are affecting the transistors
Police are examining all internet packets in the search for a narco-net-trafficker
We are currently trying a new concept of using a live mouse. Unfortunately, one has yet to survive being hooked up to the computer.....please bear with us.
Your mail is being routed through Germany ... and they're censoring us.
Only people with names beginning with 'A' are getting mail this week (a la Microsoft)
We didn't pay the Internet bill and it's been cut off.
Lightning strikes.
Of course it doesn't work. We've performed a software upgrade.
Change your language to Finnish.
Fluorescent lights are generating negative ions. If turning them off doesn't work, take them out and put tin foil on the ends.
High nuclear activity in your area.
What office are you in? Oh, that one. Did you know that your building was built over the universities first nuclear research site? And wow, aren't you the lucky one, your office is right over where the core is buried!
The MGs ran out of gas.
The UPS doesn't have a battery backup.
Recursivity. Call back if it happens again.
Someone thought The Big Red Button was a light switch.
The mainframe needs to rest. It's getting old, you know.
I'm not sure. Try calling the Internet's head office -- it's in the book.
The lines are all busy (busied out, that is -- why let them in to begin with?).
Jan 9 16:41:27 huber su: 'su root' succeeded for .... on /dev/pts/1
It's those computer people in X {city of world}. They keep stuffing things up.
A star wars satellite accidently blew up the WAN.
Fatal error right in front of screen
That function is not currently supported, but Bill Gates assures us it will be featured in the next upgrade.
wrong polarity of neutron flow
Lusers learning curve appears to be fractal
We had to turn off that service to comply with the CDA Bill.
Ionization from the air-conditioning
TCP/IP UDP alarm threshold is set too low.
Someone is broadcasting pygmy packets and the router doesn't know how to deal with them.
The new frame relay network hasn't bedded down the software loop transmitter yet.
Fanout dropping voltage too much, try cutting some of those little traces
Plate voltage too low on demodulator tube
You did wha... oh _dear_....
CPU needs bearings repacked
Too many little pins on CPU confusing it, bend back and forth until 10-20% are neatly removed. Do _not_ leave metal bits visible!
_Rosin_ core solder? But...
Software uses US measurements, but the OS is in metric...
The computer fleetly, mouse and all.
Your cat tried to eat the mouse.
The Borg tried to assimilate your system. Resistance is futile.
It must have been the lightning storm we had (yesterday) (last week) (last month)
Due to Federal Budget problems we have been forced to cut back on the number of users able to access the system at one time. (namely none allowed....)
Too much radiation coming from the soil.
Unfortunately we have run out of bits/bytes/whatever. Don't worry, the next supply will be coming next week.
Program load too heavy for processor to lift.
Processes running slowly due to weak power supply
Our ISP is having {switching,routing,SMDS,frame relay} problems
We've run out of licenses
Interference from lunar radiation
Standing room only on the bus.
You need to install an RTFM interface.
That would be because the software doesn't work.
That's easy to fix, but I can't be bothered.
Someone's tie is caught in the printer, and if anything else gets printed, he'll be in it too.
We're upgrading /dev/null
The Usenet news is out of date
Our POP server was kidnapped by a weasel.
It's stuck in the Web.
Your modem doesn't speak English.
The mouse escaped.
All of the packets are empty.
The UPS is on strike.
Neutrino overload on the nameserver
Melting hard drives
Someone has messed up the kernel pointers
The kernel license has expired
Netscape has crashed
The cord jumped over and hit the power switch.
It was OK before you touched it.
Bit rot
U.S. Postal Service
Your Flux Capacitor has gone bad.
The Dilithium Crystals need to be rotated.
The static electricity routing is acting up...
Traceroute says that there is a routing problem in the backbone. It's not our problem.
The co-locator cannot verify the frame-relay gateway to the ISDN server.
High altitude condensation from U.S.A.F prototype aircraft has contaminated the primary subnet mask. Turn off your computer for 9 days to avoid damaging it.
Lawn mower blade in your fan need sharpening
Electrons on a bender
Telecommunications is upgrading.
Telecommunications is downgrading.
Telecommunications is downshifting.
Hard drive sleeping. Let it wake up on it's own...
Interference between the keyboard and the chair.
The CPU has shifted, and become decentralized.
Due to the CDA, we no longer have a root account.
We ran out of dial tone and we're and waiting for the phone company to deliver another bottle.
You must've hit the wrong any key.
PCMCIA slave driver
The Token fell out of the ring. Call us when you find it.
The hardware bus needs a new token.
Too many interrupts
Not enough interrupts
The data on your hard drive is out of balance.
Digital Manipulator exceeding velocity parameters
appears to be a Slow/Narrow SCSI-0 Interface problem
microelectronic Riemannian curved-space fault in write-only file system
fractal radiation jamming the backbone
routing problems on the neural net
IRQ-problems with the Un-Interruptible-Power-Supply
CPU-angle has to be adjusted because of vibrations coming from the nearby road
emissions from GSM-phones
CD-ROM server needs recalibration
firewall needs cooling
asynchronous inode failure
transient bus protocol violation
incompatible bit-registration operators
your process is not ISO 9000 compliant
You need to upgrade your VESA local bus to a MasterCard local bus.
The recent proliferation of Nuclear Testing
Elves on strike. (Why do they call EMAG Elf Magic)
Internet exceeded Luser level, please wait until a luser logs off before attempting to log back on.
Your EMAIL is now being delivered by the USPS.
Your computer hasn't been returning all the bits it gets from the Internet.
You've been infected by the Telescoping Hubble virus.
Scheduled global CPU outage
Your Pentium has a heating problem - try cooling it with ice cold water.(Do not turn off your computer, you do not want to cool down the Pentium Chip while he isn't working, do you?)
Your processor has processed too many instructions. Turn it off immediately, do not type any commands!!
Your packets were eaten by the terminator
Your processor does not develop enough heat.
We need a licensed electrician to replace the light bulbs in the computer room.
The POP server is out of Coke
Fiber optics caused gas main leak
Server depressed, needs Prozac
quantum decoherence
those damn raccoons!
suboptimal routing experience
A plumber is needed, the network drain is clogged
50% of the manual is in .pdf readme files
the AA battery in the wallclock sends magnetic interference
the xy axis in the trackball is coordinated with the summer solstice
the butane lighter causes the pincushioning
old inkjet cartridges emanate barium-based fumes
manager in the cable duct
We'll fix that in the next (upgrade, update, patch release, service pack).
HTTPD Error 666 : BOFH was here
HTTPD Error 4004 : very old Intel cpu - insufficient processing power
The ATM board has run out of 10 pound notes. We are having a whip round to refill it, care to contribute ?
Network failure - call NBC
Having to manually track the satellite.
Youour computer(s) had suffered a memory leak, and we are waiting for them to be topped up.
The rubber band broke
We're on Token Ring, and it looks like the token got loose.
Stray Alpha Particles from memory packaging caused Hard Memory Error on Server.
paradigm shift...without a clutch
PEBKAC (Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair)
The cables are not the same length.
Second-system effect.
Chewing gum on /dev/sd3c
Boredom in the Kernel.
the daemons! the daemons! the terrible daemons!
I'd love to help you -- it's just that the Boss won't let me near the computer.
struck by the Good Times virus
YOU HAVE AN I/O ERROR -> Incompetent Operator error
Your parity check is overdrawn and you're out of cache.
Communist revolutionaries taking over the server room and demanding all the computers in the building or they shoot the sysadmin. Poor misguided fools.
Plasma conduit breach
Out of cards on drive D:
Sand fleas eating the Internet cables
parallel processors running perpendicular today
ATM cell has no roaming feature turned on, notebooks can't connect
Webmasters kidnapped by evil cult.
Failure to adjust for daylight savings time.
Virus transmitted from computer to sysadmins.
Virus due to computers having unsafe sex.
Incorrectly configured static routes on the corerouters.
Forced to support NT servers; sysadmins quit.
Suspicious pointer corrupted virtual machine
It's the InterNIC's fault.
Root name servers corrupted.
Budget cuts forced us to sell all the power cords for the servers.
Someone hooked the twisted pair wires into the answering machine.
Operators killed by year 2000 bug bite.
We've picked COBOL as the language of choice.
Operators killed when huge stack of backup tapes fell over.
Robotic tape changer mistook operator's tie for a backup tape.
Someone was smoking in the computer room and set off the halon systems.
Your processor has taken a ride to Heaven's Gate on the UFO behind Hale-Bopp's comet.
it's an ID-10-T error
Dyslexics retyping hosts file on servers
The Internet is being scanned for viruses.
Your computer's union contract is set to expire at midnight.
Bad user karma.
/dev/clue was linked to /dev/null
Increased sunspot activity.
We already sent around a notice about that.
It's union rules. There's nothing we can do about it. Sorry.
Interference from the Van Allen Belt.
Jupiter is aligned with Mars.
Redundant ACLs.
Mail server hit by UniSpammer.
T-1's congested due to porn traffic to the news server.
Data for intranet got routed through the extranet and landed on the internet.
We are a 100% Microsoft Shop.
We are Microsoft. What you are experiencing is not a problem; it is an undocumented feature.
Sales staff sold a product we don't offer.
Secretary sent chain letter to all 5000 employees.
Sysadmin didn't hear pager go off due to loud music from bar-room speakers.
Sysadmin accidentally destroyed pager with a large hammer.
Sysadmins unavailable because they are in a meeting talking about why they are unavailable so much.
Bad cafeteria food landed all the sysadmins in the hospital.
Route flapping at the NAP.
Computers under water due to SYN flooding.
The vulcan-death-grip ping has been applied.
Electrical conduits in machine room are melting.
Traffic jam on the Information Superhighway.
Radial Telemetry Infiltration
Cow-tippers tipped a cow onto the server.
tachyon emissions overloading the system
Maintenance window broken
We're out of slots on the server
Computer room being moved. Our systems are down for the weekend.
Sysadmins busy fighting SPAM.
Repeated reboots of the system failed to solve problem
Feature was not beta tested
Domain controller not responding
Someone else stole your IP address, call the Internet detectives!
It's not RFC-822 compliant.
operation failed because: there is no message for this error (#1014)
stop bit received
internet is needed to catch the etherbunny
network down, IP packets delivered via UPS
Firmware update in the coffee machine
Temporal anomaly
Mouse has out-of-cheese-error
Borg implants are failing
Borg nanites have infested the server
error: one bad user found in front of screen
Please state the nature of the technical emergency
Internet shut down due to maintenance
Daemon escaped from pentagram
crop circles in the corn shell
sticky bit has come loose
Hot Java has gone cold
Cache miss - please take better aim next time
Hash table has woodworm
Trojan horse ran out of hay
Zombie processes detected, machine is haunted.
overflow error in /dev/null
Browser's cookie is corrupted -- someone's been nibbling on it.
Mailer-daemon is busy burning your message in hell.
According to Microsoft, it's by design
vi needs to be upgraded to vii
greenpeace free'd the mallocs
Terrorists crashed an airplane into the server room, have to remove /bin/laden. (rm -rf /bin/laden)
astropneumatic oscillations in the water-cooling
Somebody ran the operating system through a spelling checker.
Rhythmic variations in the voltage reaching the power supply.
Keyboard Actuator Failure. Order and Replace.
Packet held up at customs.
Propagation delay.
High line impedance.
Someone set us up the bomb.
Power surges on the Underground.
Don't worry; it's been deprecated. The new one is worse.
Excess condensation in cloud network
It is a layer 8 problem
The math co-processor had an overflow error that leaked out and shorted the RAM
Leap second overloaded RHEL6 servers
DNS server drank too much and had a hiccup
Your machine had the fuses in backwards.
submitted by saqsham to copypasta [link] [comments]


2019.05.01 00:23 Scolar_H_Visari Shermans? In my clickbait? It's more likely than you think with this one weird trick!

So having Yahoo! as my home page (as people who still use Netscape Navigator often do), I was not too terribly surprised to have yet another article from the half-witted imbeciles good people at The National Interest appear in my feed.

However, instead of hard hitting, fact filled articles like, "The German Wiesel Is a Cute Mini-Tank" and "F-22 Raptor Gets Shot Down by Old F-14 Tomcat? Yes, It Could Happen", I got something else in my poorly thought out news feed:

"The Sherman Was America's Best Worst Tank"

It really is just as bad as you think it was. Now, typical to The National Interest's sweat shop approach to meaningless clickbait, the article itself is in fact a republished version of an article that previously appeared on War is Boring back in 2014 and penned by a Kyle Mizokami (who styles themself a, "Freelance writer on defense issues").

Yes it is old and no, I don't care.

But enough of that background story! Let's get into this overflowing landfill of a story, shall we? How about the first two sentences?
"American tanks in World War II were generally inferior to their German counterparts. German tanks boasted better armor protection and more firepower."
Well, I guess we're off to a good start, then. Well, for starters Mr. Mizokami, most German tanks weren't Panthers and Tigers, and most German combat AFVs were not tanks. Instead, the most numerous tanks were all variants of the Panzerkampfwagen IV, and the most common vehicles intended for anti-tank combat were assault guns. Additionally, the armor on those Panzer IVs was inferior to that of the M4 family at the best of times. Starting with the Ausf. G variant onward, the IVs at best used a maximum of 80 mm of frontal hull armor at a nearly vertical angle. This can be contrasted to the M4's starting hull thickness of 51 mm of armor at slopes of 56 degrees from the vertical, giving stock, early M4s an effective front hull thickness of over 90 mm, which is only 10 mm less than the vertical frontal armor of the Tiger tanks.

While the most common German AFV mounted gun, the 7.5 KwK 40, did higher maximum penetration (given the right rounds) than the 75 mm M3, it also wasn't really enough to mean much of a difference in reality.

Continuing on . . .
"But armor and lethality don’t tell the whole story. The same American tanks were superior to their rivals in other important ways. The M-4 Sherman, in particular, helped the U.S. Army win the war—even though, in battle, German tanks destroyed them en masse."
Given that the author referred to the M4 as the, "M-4" and will continue to do so throughout, I'm going to hazard a guess and bet they'll never really bring up specific circumstances or evidence of this particular claim or of anything else in particular. I mean, after all, their research could've been tainted because they instead kept bringing up results for the Maule M-4 aircraft.

"The Sherman’s inadequacies were products of its origins. Before the war, American tank design and development was bipolar—a result of the competing demands of the Army’s infantry and cavalry branches.
The infantry wanted a tank that—no surprise—could support the infantry on the battlefield. Infantry generals favored a vehicle with a big gun that could sit still and take out enemy bunkers.
The infantry walked into combat. They weren’t all that concerned about a tank’s speed.
By contrast, the cavalry—the Army’s scouts—preferred a fast-moving tank that could speed through gaps in enemy lines. The freewheeling cav didn’t fret armor protection.
Two tank philosophies, totally at odds with each other. And the Great Depression exacerbated the problem—the R&D money ran out.
The American tank force idled until the war jumpstarted it."
Now, if I were a generous cephalopod, I would simply assume this author was lazy. However, I am not generous, and the safe bet is on the writer being lazy and dishonest. While The National Defense Act of 1920 specified that tanks were to be developed for and to support infantry units, development of infantry tanks by the U.S. military was completely discontinued by the mid-30s to the chagrin of a few officers as described in The Evolution of the Armored Force, 1920-1940. By the time work was being done on medium tanks (including the M4), official military doctrine specified that tanks were to function in mobile, independent units capable of fighting infantry and AFVs alike. That other famous and numerically gifted tank of the war, the Soviet T-34, had a similar objective.

I'm also interested in (well, not really) where the author got the idea that there was no money at all for R&D when the U.S. Army was actively developing light and medium tanks before its entrance into the war. The M4 itself has its origins in prewar designs, but I suppose U.S. mid-war AFV development no real. Underfunded, yes, but no real?

"Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, the United States began supplying the United Kingdom with tanks. Losing France was a staggering blow to the Allies’ industrial production—the U.K. couldn’t produce everything it needed on its own."
The only American tanks in service at the war's beginning, the M1 and M2, were never exported. More importantly: The U.S. did not start exporting tanks until 1941, as the Lend-Lease Act itself wasn't even passed until March of the same year. For those keeping track, 1941 is not really, "shortly after the outbreak of World War II" unless you're using some really weird starting date.

"The first American export, the M-3 Grant, had a 75-millimeter low-velocity gun mounted in the hull for engaging infantry, and a high-velocity 37-millimeter anti-tank gun in the turret."
What, no love for the earlier combat debut of the M3 light tank? Oh, wait, that would assume this author knew such a vehicle existed. I think they may actually believe there were no American AFVs until the M3. The M2 and M1 just being myths, like anything older than 6,000 years old or Gray 17 on Babylon 5.

"That may sound impressive, but the Grant packed two guns because the Americans lacked a single gun capable of engaging both infantry and tanks. The Grant’s layout also gave it a high profile on the battlefield, making it easy to spot … and thus destroy."
Ah, another critical research failure. I'm, frankly, surprised Mr. Mizokami's readers haven't died from fatal levels of ionizing radiation this far in. At any length, the real reason for the M3's unusual configuration has nothing to do with wanting two guns and everything to do with getting a 75mm equipped AFV to production and combat sooner rather than later. As the Germans found out independently, removing the otherwise large and mechanically complex turret tremendously simplifies the mounting of larger guns as well reducing construction time. As it stands, the M3 was always intended to be a stop-gap measure until a tank with a 75 mm gun mounted in an sufficiently large turret was produced.

Additionally, the 75 mm M2 and M3 guns were not, "low velocity" weapons. They were dual-purpose unlike the much lower velocity 7.5 KwK 37 of the early Panzer IVs and StuGs (even with their optional HEAT rounds), quite similar to the main armament of the T-34 in this regards, and not far removed from the performance of higher velocity 7.5 cm guns on later incarnations of the Panzer IV.

And while the total maximum height of ~3.12 meters would indeed seem tall, that's counting the commander's cupola, which itself was a small target relative to the hull. Unless tanks got real weird, low fidelity hit boxes back then, this sort of matters outside bad games.

"The Grant’s baptism of fire was the battle of Gazala in North Africa in the spring of 1942. The British Army deployed 167 Grants against Panzer III and IV tanks from the German 15th Panzer Division.
Although the German Afrika Korps ultimately forced back the Brits, the appearance of the 75-millimeter gun—a first for the British—was a shock to the Germans."
So we've gone from, "gun mounted in the hull for engaging infantry" to praising the 75 mm in anti-tank warfare that quickly? Speaking of bipolar . . .

"Back in America, tank designers were already working on a successor to the Grant. The new Sherman packed a single 75-millimeter gun. Crew was just five, compared to the Grant’s seven. The M-4 featured a host of improvements based on British experience with the Grant in North Africa."
As was stated before, it was always the intention to produce a tank with a 75 mm in the turret.

"Even at the time of introduction, the Sherman was really nothing to get excited about. Protection was unremarkable and required constant improvement—such as an extra inch of steel plate welded to the hull to protect main gun ammunition, plus a “wet stowage” system which bathed the ammunition in water to prevent it from detonating in the event of a direct hit."
Improvements in protection were common to all AFVs of the war, and this is actually one field in which the Sherman was ahead of by leaps and bounds. The reduction and movement of ammunition stowage made it the least likely tank to, "brew up" at the war's end, whereas even the heaviest German AFVs never solved this problem, but I suppose it's just as well that the author just focused on the liquid jackets instead of the more important factor.

"The Sherman’s 75-millimeter gun was also nothing special. It was powerless against the latest German tanks—particularly the Tiger and Panther. The gun was more suitable for taking out less well-armed targets—half-tracks, artillery, infantry."
Powerless, except when attacking on the flanks, which is how most AFVs were knocked out and more often than not by towed anti-tank guns at that. We'll just never mind, again, that most German AFVs were not tanks and that most tanks were not obese kitties with chronic spare parts catnip shortages.

"U.S. intelligence had assessed the Sherman as equal to the Panzer IV, the mainstay of the German tank force. America concluded the Sherman was good enough. Unfortunately, the U.S. had failed to accurately forecast production of newer, more powerful German designs such as the Panther and Tiger.
The U.S. military believed that although the Sherman was inferior to those tanks, the new German models would rarely appear on the battlefield.
That proved wrong."
Except in the case of the Tiger, which was vanishingly rare at the best of times, except for the Panther's numerous issues conspiring to reduce its operational numbers throughout the war to well below that of its kind produced, and except for the reality that German AFVs in general were very rare in spite of increased production. Though, as confrontations like the Battle of Arracourt indicate, the Panther was far from a dominating tank in practice despite its popular characterization as such. The way people bring of the Panther, it's like they're talking about it being some sort of Super Saiyan fighting off nameless opponents with ease instead of the non-entertaining lackey to Hercule/Mr. Satan that it was. At least the real Hercule was funny and didn't genocide the Hell out of people.

"Finally, the Army viewed the tank force holistically within a veritable ecosystem of weapons. Infantry, tanks, artillery, engineers and planes were all part of the same team.
By this way of thinking, tanks shouldn’t take on other tanks. Instead, the armored vehicles should exploit gaps in enemy lines, rush in, start blowing up stuff. Infantry, airplanes, artillery and tank destroyers—vehicles similar to tanks, but lightly armored—would engage the enemy’s tanks while American tanks were running rampant.
There was a problem with this reasoning. Just because the Army wanted its Shermans to avoid the more powerful German Panthers and Tigers didn’t mean those encounters didn’t happen."
United States military doctrine published before the war acknowledged that tanks had to be able to fight other tanks, hence the longstanding characterization of the M2 and M3 guns as dual purpose weapons.

"For its part, the M-4 was good in 1942, adequate in 1943 and totally outclassed by 1944. Unfortunately for American tankers, the war lasted until 1945."
Unfortunately for the Third Reich (and fortunately for opponents to genocide worldwide), the M4 wasn't really outclassed at any point in the war. I mean, there's a good reason it saw extensive use worldwide even after the war. It's also weird that this writer even stated that the Panzer IV was the mainstay of the German armed forces and conveniently forgets that both A. It was outnumbered in turn by similar assault guns filling in the anti-tank role and B. All German AFVs were outnumbered by Allied vehicles to a ridiculous degree and constrained by a horse drawn, drooling idiot operated lines of communication that only worked if victory was obtained in an unrealistically short conflict.

"Still—as maligned as the Sherman often is, it’s important to view it in context. The side with the Sherman won the war."
It's also important to view this article in its proper context: As worthless click bait written by some one who couldn't even bother to perform five minutes of research before submitting it to an equally clueless editor. This reads like some one's experiences with tanks after fighting a few matches of Company of Heroes, more than anything else, and even then within the context of listening to a Wehraboo Discord the whole time.
submitted by Scolar_H_Visari to ShitWehraboosSay [link] [comments]


2019.04.15 20:57 fakhravary سرفصل آموزشی جاوااسکریپت

جاوا اسکریپت (JavaScript) چیست؟ جاوا اسکریپت برای اولین بار توسط شرکت Netscape و با نام LiveScript به دنیای وب و بازار عرضه شد. ولی بعدها ، با حمایت شرکت Sun Microsystems (پدید آورنده JAVA) با نام جاوا اسکریپت شناخته شد. جاوا اسکریپت یک زبان اسکریپت نویسی است ، که بیشتر با کدهای HTML در ارتباط است و همانند کدهای HTML ، روی پلت فرم های مختلفی اجرا می شود ، و یا به عبارتی به وسیله مرورگر های وب مختلفی ، قابل تفسیر است. JavaScript (به اختصار JS) ، زبان برنامه نویسی کاملاً پویا است ، که وقتی به یک صفحه وب ، اعمال می شود ، امکان برقراری تعامل پویا با وب سایت را فراهم می سازد. علیرغم اشتباه عمومی، زبان جاوااسکریپت با زبان جاوا ارتباطی ندارد، اگر چه ساختار این زبان به سی پلاس پلاس(++C) و جاوا شباهت دارد؛ که این امر برای یادگیری آسان در نظر گرفته شده‌است. از همین رو دستورهای متداول مانند if, for, try..catch ,”while” و… در این زبان هم یافت می‌گردند. جاوا اسکریپت ، زبان برنامه نویسی جمع و جوری است ، اما با این حال ، بسیار انعطاف پذیر است. توسعه دهندگان ، انواع متنوعی از ابزارها را بر روی هسته زبان JavaScript ، نوشته اند و تعداد زیادی قابلیت های اضافی را برای آن فراهم نموده اند. برخی از این قابلیت ها عبارتند از :
همان طور که اشاره شد ، جاوا اسکریپت شامل یک کتابخانه استاندارد اشیاء ، مانند Array، Date ، Math است و مجموعه پایه ای از عناصر زبان ، مثل عملگرها، ساختارهای کنترلی و عبارات می باشد.
امکانات و قابلیت های جاوا اسکریپت طراحان صفحات وب ، می توانند با استفاده از آموزش جاوا اسکریپت و یادگیری توابع و اشیاء آماده و از پیش تعریف شده جاوا اسکریپت ، قابلیت های زیادی را برای صفحات وب ایجاد کنند. برای مثال ،
اگرچه می توان به وسیله Java Script ، فرم های سمت کلاینت را که توسط کاربران تکمیل شده است ، به سمت server فرستاد ، اما جاوا اسکریپت ، قدرت ایجاد ارتباط متقابل بین server و client را به اندازه زبان جاوا ندارد.
چرا باید آموزش JavaScript را دنبال کنیم؟ وظیفه جاوا اسکریپت ، افزودن منطق به فضای HTML ، است. در واقع به کمک HTML و CSS ، نمی ‌توان یک صفحه‌ وب کامل داشت. اصولاً ، جاوا اسکریپت یک زبان سمت کاربر یا front end است ، که بار منطقی فرآیندهای وب را بر عهده می‌گیرد. البته با به وجود آمدن زبان NodeJS ، امکان نوشتن سرویس‌های وب در سمت سرور با جاوا اسکریپت نیز وجود دارد و امکان اجرای کدهای جاوا اسکریپت ، به‌ عنوان زبان سمت سرور نیز فراهم شده است.
ابزارها و کتابخانه‌ های معروف JavaScript به‌طور کلی ، با زبان جاوا اسکریپت ، می توان از سرورهای وب گرفته تا اپلیکیشن‌های موبایل و برنامه های کاربردی تحت وب را پیاده‌سازی نمود. ابزارهای زبان JavaScript ، این روزها به ‌قدری گسترده شده ‌اند که نمی‌ توانیم بدون آن‌ها ، به دنیای وب فکر کنیم. از بین مشهورترین ابزارها و فریم‌ ورک‌ های توسعه‌ یافته برای زبان جاوا اسکریپت ، می ‌توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد:
به‌ طور کلی ، برای اجرای کدهای جاوا اسکریپت ، هیچ ابزار خاصی نیاز نیست. در واقع ، بر خلاف زبان‌های دیگر که نیاز به یک کامپایلر برای اجرای کدها دارند، جاوا اسکریپت روی مرورگرهای اینترنت اجرا می‌شود. برای نوشتن کدها نیز یک editor متن ساده ، مانند Notepad ، نیاز هست؛ اما برای راحتی کار توصیه می شود از IDE (مانند Visual Studio Code) مناسب استفاده شود.
مزایای جاوا اسکریپت

فهرست سرفصل ها و رئوس مطالب مطرح شده در این مجموعه آموزشی
برای یادگیری JQuery چه چیز را باید از قبل بدانیم ! قبل از اینکه مطالعه ی آموزش JavaScript (جاوااسکریپت) را شروع کنید، شما باید دانش پایه ای(حداقلی) از موارد زیر را داشته باشید
  1. سی‌اس‌اس - (CSS)
  2. اچ‌تی‌ام‌ال - (HTML)
submitted by fakhravary to u/fakhravary [link] [comments]


2019.04.06 06:14 Joodaprey Responses Explorer Tool for the "World of Warcraft: Classic Census and Demographics Survey"

Hello fellow Classic fans!
I know the Census Survey is perhaps a bit of "old news" seeing as it happened at the start of December BUT... 2 Fridays ago I was thinking to myself something along the lines of "Man, I wish I could actually explore the data from the results instead of just statically viewing it... I wonder what the professions spread is for people playing Horde in the Americas rolling a Tank and stuff like that..."
then I realized I'm a Web Developer and I could build something to do that for us. So I did!
(TLDR with Link at bottom)

Using the Tool
You can filter the responses by any number of answers. So for example:

You get the idea. Basically any answer for a question you mark in the filter it will only keep responses who gave that answer. If you mark multiple answers for the same question it treats it as "either or" since you could only respond with one answer for a question (with the exception of profession and "interested in" questions). If you don't mark a filter for any answers of a question it just doesn't filter based off of that question.

If you are colorblind there is a button at the bottom of the filters tab that will make all the colors monochromatic shades of blue to hopefully help you use the tool better (I got you!).
Assorted Acknowledgements
  1. This explorer uses the "raw data" from the official reddit post (here), and thus only contains the ~10.2k answers in the Excel sheet that was linked. I am fully aware the survey actually has about ~18.5k responses but I have been unable to obtain a .csv or .json file for the full results. So if I was able to get the full current list of responses I would gladly update the tool to implement all 18+k of them! /target rClassicWowMod, /beg
  2. I don't own this data (obviously, I just said above I got it from classicwow).
  3. I am a Web Developer, but I'm not perfect and this was a side project. If you're truly trying to recreate the vanilla experience and try to use this tool on freaking Netscape or I.E 6 or something it's not gunna work... I'd recommend any up to date modern browser: Chrome, Firefox, Brave, Edge, Safari. If you use any version of Internet Explorer it will not work. Sorry - has to do with the Pie Charts.
  4. On the topic of browsers, I did have a few weird bugs with iOS mobile testing. So if it isn't loading for you double-check another browser and/or device and if it still isn't working send me a message and I'll try to fix whatever is hypothetically broken. But it should just work :)

Hope this helps people and otherwise is interesting to someone. If nothing else it helped me know things like class spread based off of the Server type and Region I'm planning on playing on. If you have any questions about it feel free to ask below!
TLDR: I made a thing, it lets you explore data subsets of the Classic Census Survey

-------------------------------------------------------
Link to Tool: https://aablain.github.io/wow-classic-survey/
-------------------------------------------------------

(If you're a fellow dev and mildly interested in the code here's a link to the repository)
submitted by Joodaprey to classicwow [link] [comments]


2019.03.12 13:52 mthomast Tool to convert a gmail mbox archive to pst?

you can easily migrate multiple Apple mailbox to outlook by using This MBOX to PST converter. with this tool, you can also export multiple mbox data at a time or selective email by their Name, To, From, and date wise. the tool support over than 30 email clients such as Pocomail, Mozilla Thunderbird, Apple Mail, Netscape, Entourage etc. There is no technical knowledge or other application required to use this tool and you can also save your individual email on the spot in the given formats.. It converts whole MBOX mailbox into an existing or fresh PST file without losing security. MBOX mailboxes consist of several items like emails, calendar, tasks, notes, journals, contacts and more. This is world's best and safest way to export all MBOX emails into MSG, PST and EML file formats for conversion and providing 100% recovery of data.

Download link:- http://www.filesrecoverytool.com/mbox-to-pst-converter.html
submitted by mthomast to u/mthomast [link] [comments]


2019.02.24 01:52 __nmr [SP] Sprouted

Mine sprouted right through the top of my head. Everyone told me I should feel lucky, there are worse places it could pop up. Imagine your belly button? Or that crease in between your pinky toe and the toe next to the pinky toe? I tried to see the deeper meaning in my sprouting spot, though after years of research by botanists, herbalists, pathologists, and dermatologists, no official cause has been determined as to why these plants emerge from the body parts they do. ​ Why couldn't it have taken a subtler route? Somewhere hidden, not drawing attention from the masses, like a row of daisies up the spine or a patch of Baby's-breath beneath your feet. I already enjoy a life of introversion, now after all these years of impatiently waiting for mine to sprout, I'm already considering a transplant. It didn't hurt like I thought it would. It surfaced from the soft spot on the top of my skull and pushed its way through a hair follicle, reaching for the sunlight like any other photosynthesizing plant, I'm assuming. The usual messy bun I twist my hair into has become compromised and I've had to start managing my golden locks into an even messier braid that swishes like a pendulum between my shoulder blades when I walk. The brain is the most important organ. I tell myself that has something to do with it. Maybe all that random knowledge I've retained through my 29 years on how male seahorses are the nurturers of their young or that the filmmakers recorded hands squishing grape jelly to make the sound of E.T. walking or that the two stone lions guarding the New York Public Library are named Patience and Fortitude finally grew into something more. ​ Within a month my sprout had grown only two subulate shaped leaves curving up from the base of my scalp and was three and a quarter inches tall. Len's had bloomed a few years ago, a gray, soft-petaled flora on the top of his right hand. The same hand that's currently stroking my spine, our morning routine, my very own bouquet of lust that's been waking me up like this for the past seven months.
 ​"Babe, I'm running late." Len says. "Will you do breakfast this morning?" 
​ I groan. My sprout withers.
 ​"I make breakfast every morning. What does it matter if you're running late or not?" 
​ Len rolls onto his back, flowered hand to his chin, digging for some dirt to try and prove my statement false. He could be there all day. I first met Lennon Johnson on the 1:53am train back to Union Station during my last semester of grad school. It was very obvious that he was searching for my bloom, his green-gray eyes scanning all visible areas of my exposed flesh, looking for any signs of plant-life. When he told me his name I asked if his parents were hippies who loved The Beatles and he said his parents hated bugs and I pictured a couple both with dandelions for brains. Len was charming, smart, and romantic as roses. On the train that night he told me stories about his travels, all the places he backpacked through after college and before he settled down in his career. I was enthralled by his experiences, these train rides to Manhattan were the most adventurous trips I've gone on, besides that one time I went to Disneyworld when I was four years old and my parents lost me in the It's Tough to be a Bug! attraction in Animal Kingdom. Len was already feeding me promises of seeing the world together, and I was only questioning if he was going to actually call me like the last three guys said they would. After dating for two months he moved into my studio apartment located above a juice bar that caused it to always smell like celery. When I graduated, I took some of my savings and put down the first month's fee and security deposit on this 550-square-foot rental right in downtown New Haven. It had red brick walls and exposed wood beams and a shower so small, my elbows hit the white tile walls when I shampooed my hair. I cooked us Pinterest dinners my mom sent me daily through Facebook messenger and Len always did the dishes. Well, he rinsed them before putting them in the dishwasher. We took weekend trips as much as we could. Beach front Airbnb's in Rhode Island, camping trips in Sutton Falls, just a few hours over the Massachusetts border. I was a weekend warrior, living as wanderers do, at least that's what Len told me. I was a freelance copywriter, working on marketing campaigns for local breweries, social media accounts for Kickstarter corporations, so I had freedom and flexibility when it came to my job, and also a below average salary. Lennon was a journalist for a local online blog, so he couldn't really help with rent, but he was in between houses and had flowers on his hand and he told me he loved me. I started his eggs as he finished packing for a weekend business trip to the city to write a piece on a Talking Heads cover band playing at The Knitting Factory in Brooklyn. I was secretly looking forward to some alone time, but I told him I'd miss him anyways. The next morning I'm amazed to see the start of a baby bud finally starting to open at the end of my sprout. Most everyone's bloom typically appears in the first two weeks of their growth, so I was starting to get concerned. Today it even looks greener, the stalk more rigid and leaves extra veiny and lush. I decide to celebrate by staying at home and starting a travel memoir I scored from a Little Free Library at the park last summer. Notes in margins and scribbling in between lines are reasons I became so obsessed with seeking out used books. This one has scrawl all throughout the text, like kindred thoughts to my own speculations of the story. It's as if I'm being gifted my very own annotations within the book. On the last page there's a small drawing of a tiger lily, in simple black ink, and I realized that sketch was the closest I've come to having a deep connection with anything this entire year. When Len returns late Sunday night, all mad he missed the 4:34 express train and he had to take the 5:05, he doesn't even comment on my new addition. A thick, seafoam-green stem standing tall, topped with a single white petal now adorns the top of my head. I figured he'd be shocked to see how much it grew in the two days he was gone, but he just passes out diagonally across the bed after inhaling my Chipotle leftovers I was saving for lunch tomorrow. One my leaves is already browning around the edges. I'm at lunch with my mom a few weeks later when she comments on my lack of growth.
 "Did you even read the article I emailed you? Karen at work said she mixed a little MiracleGro in her shampoo for a week straight and hers grew six inches. Six inches! In a week! Can you believe it?" I tell her that stuff is poison, I won't even use it in my vegetable garden let alone massage it into my scalp. It just needs time, I tell her, even though it hasn't grown much more since Len came home from that Brooklyn trip. She's staring at me now, with that "mom look" that moms get when they're trying to decide if they should teach you a lesson now or let you figure it out on your own. I suppose the latter won because she just corrects her posture and tucks her hair behind her growth and pushes around the remaining contents of her arugula and quinoa salad. My mother is the embodiment of beauty. The single red rose tucked behind her ear just adds the finishing touch to her all-around perfection. She was a late bloomer, too. It wasn't until she met my father that the thorny vine protruding upwards from her collarbone throughout her late 20's started to branch up the side of her neck and blossom into the most stunning growth I've seen to this day. Her pin-straight obsidian bob is a stark contrast to her crimson floral adornment, but her dark features complement the rose's hypnotizing intent. My whole life I watched head turns from men and women, craning their necks to keep her in their passing gaze, her rose, emanating such elegance that other growths shriveled in envy. Trying to hide the slight downturn my lips make thinking about my mom's comment, I'm reminded of memories from my youth, living at my parent's house those twenty-five years. My mom was in a constant state of worry, her fear that my sister and I would be cursed with some, "hideous growth like your Uncle Ralph's". Maybe that's why mine took so long to spring up, it too feared the malignant maternal judgment. Everyone tries not to judge based on where your sprout chooses to unearth, but some are less fortunate, shrubbery sticking out of their nostrils or wrists wrapped in vice-like vines, like their growth is punishing them for some unknown secret. I can't stop Googling "Why Has My Sprout Suddenly Stopped Growing" ever since my mom got into my head about Karen and the MiracleGro. The only results I'm getting are that I need more water or I'm drinking too much water, but finally on page 23 I click on a link that takes me to a site reminiscent of Netscape.com in 1996. It has information about crystal energy and chakras and theories on how sprouts are the "third eye of our mind". It's all a load of shit but I take the "What is your sprout telling you?" quiz anyways. Twenty-five irrelevant questions later like, "Do you believe in animal reincarnation?" and "What's your favorite secondary color?" the results tell me, "Your roots they need to grow, but this you already know." All I know is that was a complete waste of time and I need to stop letting my mother's irrational concern get to me. I'm sitting in front of my mirrored closet door one Sunday night, still thinking about the lunch I had with my mom about a month ago, gently massaging the tips of the browning petals on my now fully bloomed peace lily. It finally blossomed five days ago, and that morning when Len woke up and saw it, he commented, "it's so, white," and promptly fell back asleep. I read somewhere that channeling positive thoughts and energy into plants can help them grow and stay healthy, so lately I've been thinking positive mantras while lightly caressing the dead parts between my thumb and pointer finger. You are a beautiful flower. You are a strong, beautiful flower. You are a strong, smart, independent, beautiful flower who don't need no man to help you grow. I've become Karen. Len creeps up behind me as I'm loving on myself and digs his fingers into my ribs in an attempt to tickle me, even though I've told him infinite times there's nothing in this world I hate more than being assaulted by fingers in effort to make me laugh. I suddenly feel something inside me rip, a small, but sharp snap, like the separation of a five-year-old and their first tooth. I accidentally tear off one of my petals in the sneak attack. I bring the ivory leaf in front of my eyes and focus on it until the background blurs into a hazy horizon. My rose-colored glasses shatter as they fall to the floor. I don't say a thing when I get up and walk over to my bureau and start frantically pulling out random clothes. I'm still quiet when Len saunters over, acting like nothing is wrong, and asks what I'm cooking for dinner tonight. My silence finally registers when I finish packing my bag with a weeks' worth of outfits, grab my keys off the hook, and slam the door in the middle of being asked what's wrong. My mother welcomes me with open arms. She loves playing mom when one of her daughters comes running home. My childhood bedroom is exactly the same: pages torn from books, faded Polaroids, and antique world maps cover almost all of the sage colored walls. I grew up surrounded by the precursors to a life inspired by experience and adventure. Instead I'm stuck living in a shoe two sizes too small with a guy who just takes up space I could be using to grow. Space my roots need to grow. Len doesn't even call for the first three days I'm at my mom's. He doesn't text, doesn't tweet, no DM's, PM's, or even play his turn on Words with Friends. Although, I have beaten him the past eleven consecutive games, so that may be a factor, too. When he does finally call the fourth night, it's obvious he's out, drunk, and like usual, doesn't think anything's wrong. "Baby. Hi. Where are you?" he slurs. "Lennon, really? Are you just noticing now that I haven't been home in four days?" "Well, no, but, where are you? I need a ride. And some Taco Bell." "Text me where you are." "Babeee, Taco Be-." I hang up before I change my mind. It's not that Lennon is a bad person. I tell myself it's because he's an only child, from a sheltered little family and he's never experienced the selflessness of sharing with siblings or having to take care of your little sister when your mom was working doubles at the hospital six nights a week and your dad never left his home office. Besides, my lily is looking whiter than ever, lush and full of life, maybe he'll see it and remember why he fell in love with me in the first place. After eating eight tacos he passes out in the car before we even make it back to my apartment. I have to shake him awake and assist him up the stairs, all while preventing his heavy frame from crushing my flower that appears to be invisible to him. Our growths are durable, but there's only so much someone can take. I broke up with Lennon the next morning. He said I was being childish, and I said he was a selfish asshole. I don't think we'll remain friends. I moved across town to a split-level duplex that had floor to ceiling windows and skylights in every room, letting in natural light all throughout the day. I signed the lease before I even saw the full apartment. My neighbor was a widowed 88-year-old lady named Roz who had Queen Anne's Lace for eyebrows and a French bulldog called Marigold. She invited me over for dinner nearly every night and told me stories of her life and late husband and how she didn't get her growth until twelve years ago after he passed. "I thought there was something wrong with me by my 50th birthday," Roz told me. "like maybe I had some internal disease, 'bad dirt,' I always said. I've heard of people sprouting in their late 30's, even 40's, but then there I was, 76-years-old, and I woke up one morning with flowers on my face." I started taking Marigold for walks every morning. We both had short legs, so our paces were compatible, and she appreciated the greater lengths we'd go that Roz could no longer handle. Roz helped me realize how much time I wasted with someone I kept hoping would change, all the while teaching me how these people come into our lives for a reason. We spent the majority of our time together sitting on the bench swing hanging on our front porch. Whatever book I was reading at the time Roz made me read aloud to her, she said she regrets not reading more books when her eyes were able to still see the fine print and we both agreed that audiobooks are literary frauds. I could tell how much she missed her family by how much she talked about them, she was especially proud of one of her grandsons who moved to New Hampshire after college to be a conservation scientist in the White Mountains. She called him her Little Tiger. My mom came to visit me more often at this house than she ever did at the celery apartment. I cooked her dinner one night and she confessed she never liked Lennon and said she knew all along that he was the reason my sprout struggled to grow. She also told me Karen lost all her hair and now wears a Marilyn Monroe style wig to work, so she hopes I didn't try the MiracleGro remedy. I've had to trim my flower twice now since I've left Lennon. The first stem, with the decaying petals and withered leaves I left on our old apartment's back steps. He ended up staying in that studio and I heard he's now dating one of the girls from the juice bar who's clearly naïve and only nineteen. The second lily, I pressed in a book underneath my mattress, encased it in resin, and gifted it to Roz as a pendant. She wears it every day, a symbol of my gratitude and appreciation hanging right over her heart. Almost two years later Roz passed away the day after her 90th birthday. She left me Marigold in her will. Her family came from out of state to organize the services for her. On March 20th, Roz was laid to rest on a bed of Queen Anne's Lace, under an old oak tree at the cemetery down the street. There were a surprising number of attendees at the funeral, all paying their respects by leaving behind a piece of their growth on the closed casket, a bouquet of grief to be buried with the deceased from an arrangement of her friends and family. I was the last to place down my flower, a lily I let grow taller than my usual allotted height, and I noticed a tiger lily among the bunch of blossoms and smiled remembering the drawing from the memoir I read. "Scarlett?" someone addresses me from behind. Turning around I'm met with rich, mournful brown eyes and an outstretched hand. I subtly search for any growth before completing the handshake and meet Roz's grandson, Ellis, who's incredibly grateful for my befriending of his grandmother. He's at least a foot taller than me, but it doesn't take much to tower over my short figure. We agree to exchange information in order to meet up again as he insists on buying me coffee to talk about his grandmother and her final years we spent together. My eyes scan the rest of him while another grieving loved one shares her condolences. There's a freshly cut stem, peeking out from under his dark hair sprouting from the same exact spot my lily grows on my head. My sprout stretches towards the sky. Ellis turns back towards me and hands me his card: 
ELLIS HAWTHORN FOREST CONSERVATIONIST WHITE MOUNTAINS NATIONAL FOREST
 "It's made from hemp." he says with a shy smile. 
I know I should tell him that I appreciate his efforts in saving our Earth and that I know of forty-two different products that can be made from hemp that I read about in a Purdue scientific journal back in college or that I know a great little café that only serves coffee in reusable things resembling cups like, soup cans, mason jars, and hallowed coconut halves, but all I can focus on is the picture of him on the opposite side of his business card. Ellis, standing proudly alone in a forest of white birchwood, dressed in park ranger beige, with a fully bloomed tiger lily, right on the top of his head.
submitted by __nmr to shortstories [link] [comments]


2019.02.03 13:24 crypto_jedi_ninja World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

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